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On the one hand virus 20 orca generic 480 mg novotrim amex, labor power can be thought of only in conjunction with the historical process of "sepa-! Christopher Pavsek virus upload purchase 480mg novotrim amex, "Alexander Kluge and Postmodernism or Realism and the Public Sphere,"unpublished ms. Similarly, Public Sphere and Experience assumes a comprehensive notion of social production," in which the material production of commodities is but one articular formation, one that under capitalism, however, has dominated all other reas of social production. These include processes of socialization, language, bidinal structures, and the creation of intimacy, experience (as well as experince in generating the conditions for experience), structures of social interaction, nd publicity-in short, the production of life contexts that can never be totally ubsumed to the valorization interest and that produce, along with the commodity ontext, contradictions and mass doubt that delegitimize that very context. Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, Geschichte und Eigensinn (Frankfurt: Zweitausendeins, 1981), Parti. See, for example, John Fiske, Reading the Popular (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989), chap. The possibility that they could be organized differently, in the interest of the producing/experiencing subjects rather than profit, provides a standard of critique for prevailing products and practices. ForBenjamin, the ability to gauge the distance between past and present was synonymous with the ability to imagine, a different future, even though he knew well that both were declining rapidly. Hansen, "Alexander Kluge, Cinema and the Public Sphere: the Construction Site of Counter-History," Discourse 6 (Fall 1983): 53-74; 61-63. How can experience, including that of organization, resistance and defeat, be remembered and transmitted over generations? How can individual and collective learning cycles interact under the regime of an industrial-capitalist temporality that divides life into a mere succession of valorizable chunks of time and fragmented leftovers? How do people make sense of the arbitrarily intersecting parameters of everyday life, individual life story, and history? Kluge in particular has shifted his argument in the direction of an emphatic notion of public life reminiscent of Habermas and Richard Sennett, a vision of direct participation, openness, and self-reflexivity grounded in face-to-face relations, the territorial unity of urban space. The latter is, quite evidently, deterritorialized, comprising transnational networks of distribution and consumption such as pop music and video, food and fashion industries, communications and information technologies. These deterritorialized forms of publicity are increasingly transacted in private, in networks of individual consumption: "commodities and industries now realize themselves in human beings. Kluge elaborates on the disjunctures of life stories and history in a number of films; see, for instance, the sequence entitled "The Relationship of a Love Story to History" in the Patriot (1979), in which a mirror shot of a couple, the man in uniform, is accompanied by the voice-over: "Rome, August 1939. Also see "The Assault of the Present on the Rest of Time" (1985), excerpts, trans. For a critical view of territorial notions of the contemporary urban public sphere, see Vito Acconci, "Public Space in a Private Time," Critical Inquiry 16 (Summer 1990): 900-918. The notion of a counterpublic, by contrast, refers to a specifically v/ll modern phenomenon, contemporaneous with, and responding to, bourgeois and industrial-capitalist publicity. It offers forms of solidarity and reciprocity that are ^ j grounded in a collective experience of marginalization and expropriation, but · these forms are inevitably experienced as mediated, no longer rooted in face-toface relations, and subject to discursive conflict and negotiation. No doubt, the language of community provides a powerful matrix of identification and thus may function as a mobilizing force for transformative politics. The counterpublic status and effectiveness of such language, however, depends upon two factors: (1) the extent to which it knows itself as rhetoric, as a trope of impossible authenticity, reinventing the promise of community through synthetic and syncretistic images; and (2) the extent to which it admits difference and differentiation within its own borders, is capable of accepting multiply determined sexual-social identities and identifications. The admission of discursive struggle into the process of subordinate groups, after all, is the condition of the possibility for different counterpublics to overlap and form alliances. Once the public sphere is defined as a horizon for the organization of social experience, it follows that there are multiple and competing counterpublics, each marked by specific terms of exclusion (class, race, gender, sexual preference) in relation to dominant publicity, yet each understanding itself as a nucleus for an alternative organization of society. Negt and Kluge do not elaborate on the question of a plural counterpublic-perhaps because, compared to American conditions, the (West) German critical public of the seventies still seemed relatively homogeneous-although the great diversity of examples in the appendices clearly registers a sense of dispersal. It is only when they abandon the notion of the "proletarian" public sphere in the following decade that they explicitly address, in Geschichte und Eigensinn, the emergence of a wealth of dispersed activities that 50. For a critique of the concept of community, see Iris Marion Young, "The Ideal of Community and the Politics of Difference," in Feminism and Postmodernism, ed. Unless powerful efforts at alliances are made-and such efforts have been made, successfully, especially in the areas of ecology and health care-the oppositional energy of individual groups and subcultures is more often neutralized in the marketplace of multicultural pluralism or polarized in a reductive competition of victimizations. Apart from the hegemonic interest in preventing counterpublic alliances, the structural problem that arises with the proliferation of counterpublics is, of course, one of translation, of communicating across a widening arena of discursive contestation. Discussing possible relations among multiple, competing publics in a hypothetical egalitarian, multicultural society, Fraser speaks of the need for "an additional, more comprehensive arena in which members of different, more limited publics talk across lines of cultural diversity. The problem is that such a comprehensive horizon already exists-in the structures of the dominant public sphere, the violent pseudosynthesis of power, profit, and meaning- even though this horizon is becoming increasingly invisible, retreating into the functional. Therefore, it seems questionable whether a counterpublic horizon of translation can be constructed in the abstract, as an "additional" dimension, and how this could be done without once again resorting to the idealist universalism of the liberal-bourgeois public sphere, which after all sanctioned both formal and informal mechanisms of exclusion and subordination.

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See also our comments below in commentary 15 virus paralyzing children discount novotrim 480mg amex, "Friedrich Engels on the Party Press and the Public Sphere virus update discount 480 mg novotrim visa. The fact that violations of the forms and practices of the bourgeois public sphere are met with considerable resistance on the part of many workers can also be explained by the fact that the workers rightfully fear the loss of the rudimentary use characteristics of this public sphere, which at least mediate the rudiments of a social context. It is important to not allow oneself to be seduced into an ambivalent approach by these emancipatory auxiliary phenomena of the bourgeois public sphere. It is therefore not surprising that, once the bourgeois public sphere has achieved what it is meant to, it tends once again toward privatization. The market, property, and the subsumption of labor power under capital develop publicly. Once this bourgeois mode of production has been attained, it falls back into the sphere from which it emerges: starting out from the productive sector (from the material base of the public sphere), arcane realms, exclusive and particular power relations, repeatedly come into being. These realms have the tendency to incorporate the totality of the context of living. The two are not externally related to one another, but rather produce their respective opposite from within themselves. The Proletarian Public Sphere as a Historical Counterconcept to the Bourgeois Public Sphere In the bourgeois class, the interests of individuals are organized and implemented in both private and public forms. By contrast, the interests of workers can, since they are unrealized, be organized only if they enter into a context of living, in other words into a proletarian public sphere. Only then do they have the chance to develop as interests, instead of remaining mere possibilities. If they are then directly suppressed, in other words if they are not socially valorized, they survive as living labor power, as raw material. As extraeconomic interests, they exist-precisely in the forbidden zones of fantasy beneath the surface of taboos-as stereotypes of a proletarian context of living that is organized in a merely rudimentary form. In this respect, they have two characteristics: in their defensive attitude toward society, their conservatism, and their subcultural character, they are once again mere objects; but they are, at the same time, the block of real life that goes against the valorization interest. As long as capital is dependent on living labor as a source of wealth, this element of the proletarian context of living cannot be extinguished through repression. This state of affairs represents the initial phase of the constitution of the prole8. Where attempts are made to fit this block into the interests of capital, for instance by the subsumption of the context of living under the programming and consciousness industry or the new public spheres of production, the accompanying process of oppression and exclusion produces the substance, appropriately differentiated, of a newly emergent block. It is no contradiction that, initially, at the level of social mediation depicted, no concrete solutions present themselves. Capital cannot destroy this block, and the proletariat cannot take hold of society from within it. In reality, this founding phase of the proletarian public sphere is only rarely encountered in this pure form. It is necessary to distinguish them, since all forms of the proletarian public sphere are the qualitative expression of the proletarian context of living and therefore tend-by contrast with the costume character of the rapidly changing bourgeois public spheres-to exclude more developed forms. The Assimilation of Elements of the Proletarian Context of Living into the Integrative Mechanism of the Bourgeois Public Sphere this includes the integration of the energies of the labor movement into forms of organization that are modeled on the bourgeois public spheres. In all such cases, workers are as a rule separated from the psychic and institutional tools with which they could adapt the bourgeois public sphere to their interests or create specific forms of their own public sphere. In this sense the empirical working-class public sphere often appears as a variant of the bourgeois public sphere. If workers try to overcome the particularity of their interests by seeking to take hold of the apparent totality of bourgeois production, of the bourgeois world, they fall victim to a deception. For they are trying to sublate their proletarian context of living with the aid of something that is its exact opposite. One cannot sublate the conditions of proletarian life without sublating those of the bourgeoisie, any more than one can sublate wage labor without at the same time sublating capital. On the other hand, it would not be concealed by the pure form of bourgeois public sphere. It is precisely the result of exclusion and oppression, that is, precisely the other of this bourgeois public sphere.

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The consciousness industry makes use of the economic opportunity bacteria reproduction process buy 960 mg novotrim with amex, which the overall development of commodity production provides antibiotics in meat cheap novotrim 960mg with visa, for its own specialized output. The libidinal fantasies of human beings, their hopes, wishes, needs, are no longer set free, are no longer capable of developing themselves in accordance with random interests, but are concretely occupied with use-values, with commodities. In this process, advertising does not manipulate, it merely seizes an opportunity. The function played by ideologies in the early phases of fascism, since there were scarcely any use-values available for distribution (the estates for the under conditions that have been altered very little objectively. To put it quite abstractly, that which mediates human beings with capital can only be illusory. At this level, it is no longer a question of the mere restriction o f t / the private sphere but of the differentiated forms in which this sphere is valorized as a whole. The bearer of labor power as a commodity reacts to a compactly packaged product whose individual use-value qualities are concealed. A feature develops in this case that was always a characteristic of commodity production and that expressed itself in the form of packaging and advertising. Both the exotic and the j life-style associated with the commodity have always played a defining role in shops specializing in colonial goods, in imported tobacco, and so forth. But it is ii / x(5 only at the level of the consciousness industry and of the media cartel18 that these il^-P impressions combine into an overall context of the individual commodities themselves. Two different tendencies can be differentiated in this context: (1) the tendential disappearance of the use-value in fantasy value, and (2) the linking of broad, imaginary life desires to relatively limited use-value characteristics. The business of fried chicken franchises, whose hormone-injected chickens are produced at a rate of 33 million annually, indicates that the nutritional value of these chickens has nearly disappeared, and according to the dietetic calorie table amounts to nothing. Example for (2): Almost all cigarette advertising is founded on the inclusion of emotions, universal contexts, undisturbed nature, that is, on desires that exceed the limited horizon to which the use of cigarettes is linked. Only at the level of the totality of commodities, shopping centers, and the media cartel do the individual fantasy values come together. They link up not merely with individual feelings and moods, but with history, the life cycle, and social meaning. He can attempt, either privately 20 or through collective activity (for example, by joining political groups), to break out of society. His other alternative is to satisfy his wishes on his own through education, self-actualization, or the motivation to better himself. This provides the opportunity for the consciousness industry to assert itself by offering the synthetic third way: it removes libidinal wishes that cannot be satisfied within the system from reality, where they could have a destructive impact on the capital interest. It stops people from searching for individual usevalues and confronts them with a balanced totality of commodities that maintain the socially produced libidinal energy in an economic equilibrium. A mere negation of this nexus, as advocated by progressive forms of cultural criticism, achieves little. Since fantasy production represgats-ft-sgecific mode of action of the majority of workers as well, criticism must (work through this fantasy production. It is possible to dissolve this nexus only by taking up; within a proletarian public sphere, these promises of meaning and totality-promises that reproduce, in a highly sensitive manner, actual wishes, some of whicK remain uncensored by the ruling interest-and by incorporating them into the autonomous forms of action of the workers. This necessarily results in breaks and in a consciousness of the difference between a practical possibility for action and one that is merely fantasized · in the commodity nexus. Drugs, which today are linked to a retreat into a subculture; a retreat into criminality, which also leads to its own subculture. The civil, libidinally subdued form of expression; a retreat into the entertainment media. What occurs here is a back-and-forth oscillation: a return to the adaptive behavior of predatory society, demoralization, plans for a new world; the same force can be expressed in shoplifting at a department store, a wildcat strike, or resignation. Haug refers here to the "commodity poem of advertising" in contrast to the "impotent antiadvertising of the poets. This characterizes an aporia of authentic art as well, but cannot be used against the radicality of advanced works of art so long as an organization of proletarian experience does not take place within the proletarian public sphere. They remain "viceroys" of an autonomous production of fantasy that will comprise social experiential content for as long as the production of fantasy of the masses takes place only within a context of blockage, that is, as long as it is unorganized or organized by capital interests. In this process, the consciousness industry encounters a state of affairs that it has not given rise to: the unequal development of the productive forces of feelings, perceptions, illusions, and of the productive force of the intelligentsia. These factors have different historical tempi and also develop in different directions.

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Also antibiotics for uti cost buy novotrim 480mg cheap, it is not clear to antibiotic resistant bacteria documentary buy 480mg novotrim with visa what extent the participants are representative of those with autistic spectrum disorders. Pressing questions are whether the nature of the intensive intervention really matters and if there are clinical indicators that might predict which children are the most likely to show improvement with this approach. A logical extension of these studies is to ask whether intensive early intervention and education might have beneficial effects for children with developmental disabilities other than autism, for example with fetal alcohol syndrome or effects. It is not clear whether intensive early intervention will benefit children with very severe autism, especially if they are non-verbal. Unfortunately, people with severe autism, especially non-verbal older children, adolescents and adults, have not been adequately represented in research studies to date (Charmin, 1994). Also, they are having great difficulty procuring the intervention and services that they need. Intensive early intervention and education programs may benefit a substantial proportion of children with autism, but these approaches do not provide cures. It has been suggested that alternative medical approaches be considered as adjuncts to other forms of intervention in autism (Kidd, 2002b). This rather vast array of approaches can be confusing to caregivers and professionals. Although alternative approaches are receiving publicity in the media and on the Internet, they are presently considered controversial as most have not been evaluated by well-designed research methods. To achieve successful "alternative" medical management, it is important that families or individuals work hand in hand with their doctors, and ideally with nutritional and environmental specialists. Clinical trials in the use of alternative interventions in the autistic spectrum disorders should be encouraged so that the results and side effects might be widely disseminated. Summary Breakthroughs in our understanding of the primary causes of the autistic spectrum disorders are leading to new approaches for effective intervention and a quest for prevention or even cures. The prevalence of autism seems to be increasing, possibly as the result of changes in diagnostic criteria, interest in the disorder, and exposure to new infectious organisms and dietary factors. The "diagnosis" of autism, which really is a classification system, is far from ideal, and the misdiagnosis of autism is complicating therapeutic endeavours as well as the search for primary causes of autism. Quite a number of other disorders whose primary cause is known can mask as autism (fragile X syndrome is a common example). Autism is associated with various genetic, metabolic and immune system abnormalities. Serious disturbances in the function of the gut have been identified in some people with autism, possibly resulting in complications that include vitamin and mineral deficiencies and food allergies or sensitivities. Some suspected environmental risk factors for autism include lead poisoning, perinatal anoxia (lack of oxygen), and maternal alcohol consumption. New imaging methods already are detecting changes in brain structure and function in people with autism. Therapeutic approaches for autism include medical, intensive behavioural and educational intervention strategies, but these usually only help with the management of autism. Alternative medical approaches that include dietary supplements or restrictions, or immune interventions, should be considered as a prerequisite or adjunct to other therapeutic approaches. The process of evidence based medicine, which is tailored to the individual and which examines the effectiveness of the therapeutic approach, is advocated in all forms of intervention. Prospective research studies must describe participants in sufficient detail so that others may be able to duplicate these experiments. Animal models for Rett syndrome and fragile X syndrome are leading to the development of new medications that might have general therapeutic benefit. A comparison of patterns of disability in severely mentally handicapped children of different ethnic origins. Progress and outcomes for children with autism receiving parent-managed intensive interventions. Centre for evidence based medicine (2003) - University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital. Secretin used in the treatment of autism: A double-blind clinical trial in children. Celiac autism: calcium studies and their relationship to celiac disease in autistic patients.

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Recent evidence also suggests a role for dyslipidemia in the development and progression of renal disease antibiotic resistance metagenomics buy novotrim 960mg without a prescription. Experimental studies have demonstrated that lipids may induce glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury antibiotics for uti black and yellow order novotrim 480mg overnight delivery, and that lipid-lowering treatments ameliorate renal injury. Various lipid abnormalities have been associated with the development and progression of renal disease in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Population-based studies and studies of diabetic patients have reported associations of various lipid abnormalities with the development of renal disease. There is also evidence for synergistic renoprotective effects between statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. According to the results of post hoc analysis of several studies, treatment with fibrates does not seem to confer renoprotection, but evidence is scarce. In summary, there is growing evidence that lipid abnormalities may be a risk factor for renal disease, and that statins appear to confer a renoprotective effect. In the nephrotic syndrome, the lipid profile is highly atherogenic, with increased total and Key words: chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, progression. Dyslipidemia may damage glomerular capillary endothelial and mesangial cells as well as podocytes. Macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 enhances the recruitment of macrophages, which can infiltrate the glomerulus and become foam cells that release cytokines. A prospective study evaluated 574 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of recent onset with normal renal function and urinary albumin excretion rate at baseline who were followed up for a mean of 7. In the multiple regression analysis, mean blood pressure and levels of total cholesterol and hemoglobin A 1c were the main factors associated with a decrease in renal function and with an increase in albuminuria. Similar results were observed in a cohort of 297 type 1 diabetic patients without end-stage renal disease who were followed up for 7 years. Conversely, the World Health Organization Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes, which included 959 type 1 and 3558 type 2 diabetic patients with a mean follow-up of 8. In type 2 diabetes, but not in type 1 diabetes, Cases and Coll: Dyslipidemia and renal disease S-89 Table 1. It is also not clear whether dyslipidemia increases the renal risk in those without other risk factors for kidney disease, because most studies that have evaluated the effects of dyslipidemia on renal disease have been performed with patients with pre-existing renal disease or other risk factors for renal disease, such as hypertension and diabetes. The risk of loss of renal function associated with dyslipidemia seems to be highest in those with moderate-to-severe renal disease and other renal risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes. Finally, in some of these studies, the possible role of unmeasured confounders, such as the metabolic syndrome, S-90 Cases and Coll: Dyslipidemia and renal disease cannot be ruled out. In the Greek Atorvastatin and Heart Disease Evaluation study, 1600 patients with established coronary heart disease were randomized to atorvastatin or placebo. A post hoc analysis demonstrated that, over the 36 months of follow-up, patients allocated to atorvastatin showed a 12. There is also evidence of a synergistic effect between statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on renal protection. Taken together, these studies suggest that treatment with statins may reduce the rate of progression of renal damage in patients with coronary heart disease or other cardiovascular diseases, in patients with diabetes Cases and Coll: Dyslipidemia and renal disease S-91 Table 2. Statins prevent the development of glomerular scarring in obese Zucker rats and Dahl saltsensitive rats. Statins also inhibit the proliferation of several cell lines (mesangial cells, renal, tubular, or vascular smooth muscle cells) and induce apoptosis. Statins inhibit the release of chemokines and cytokines by mesangial cells and monocytes. They also inhibit the production of matrix components, such as collagen or fibronectin, by mesangial cells. In patients with polycystic kidney disease, simvastatin treatment for 4 weeks produced a 6. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies with humans are required to confirm this. The primary outcome will be the time to a first cardiovascular event, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, cardiac death, stroke, or coronary or noncoronary revascularization.

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Papillary necrosis is common in diabetics antibiotic mnemonics purchase novotrim 960 mg online, particularly in association with acute pyelonephritis virus scan for mac 480mg novotrim with mastercard, resulting in renal parenchymal scarring, although it is difficult to exclude obstruction by the sloughed papillae as the cause of the nephropathy. The risk of chronic renal disease and renal insufficiency caused by pyelonephritis is low. Underlying lesions including vesicoureteral reflux, analgesic abuse, nephrolithiasis and obstruction of the urinary tract have to be observed. A fluoroquinolone for 7-10 days can be recommended as first-line therapy if the resistance rate of E. However, available studies have demonstrated only equivalent clinical, but not microbiological, efficacy compared with ciprofloxacin. Table 5: Recommended initial empirical parenteral antimicrobial therapy in severe acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis Initial parenteral therapy in severe uncomplicated pyelonephritis After improvement, the patient can be switched to an oral regimen using one of the agents listed in Table 4 (if active against the infecting organism) to complete the 1-2-week course of therapy. In more severe cases of pyelonephritis, hospitalisation and supportive care are usually required. For patients who relapse with the same pathogen, the diagnosis of uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be reconsidered. Efficacy in other groups of patients and relative to antimicrobial prophylaxis remains to be established. Only the Lactobacillus strains specifically tested in studies should be considered for prophylaxis. When commercially available, it is reasonable to consider the use of intravaginal probiotics that contain L. However differences in effectiveness between available preparations suggest further trials are needed before any recommendation for use can be made. Due to these contradictory results, no recommendation of the daily consumption of cranberry products can be made. D-mannose should at the present time only be used within the frame of high quality clinical investigations. Treatment strategy depends on the severity of the illness and encompasses three goals: management of the urological abnormality, antimicrobial therapy, and supportive care when needed. To avoid the emergence of resistant strains, therapy should be guided by urine culture whenever possible. A dipstick method can also be used for routine assessment, including a leukocyte esterase test, haemoglobin and probably a nitrite reaction. Otherwise, the bacterial spectrum may vary over time and from one hospital to another. Under certain circumstances, such as the presence of a stone or foreign bodies, staphylococci can be relevant pathogens. It may be difficult to obtain a positive culture on standard laboratory media, but pyuria is common, particularly in the later stages of disease progression. In rare situations, especially in association with an obstruction, it may liquefy and form a renal abscess requiring drainage. Renal abscess: They can rupture into the urinary tract or penetrate through the renal capsule to become a perinephric abscess. In bed-ridden patients, however, perinephric abscesses can present with few symptoms. Respiratory insufficiency, haemodynamic instability and paralytic ileus may predominate. Papillary necrosis, intrarenal vascular thrombus, and renal infarction are often seen in pathology. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: this is characterised by a chronic purulent, fatty inflammation of the renal parenchyma, the pyelon and the hilar tissue. Risk factors include more intensive immunosuppression, extremes of age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged time on dialysis, abnormal or reconstructed lower urinary tract and prolonged use of urinary catheters and stents. The transplanted kidney is denervated and may not be tender even in the face of pyelonephritis.

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The absolutist state filamentous bacteria 0041 buy novotrim 960 mg with amex, which treatment for uti burning cheap novotrim 960mg otc, as a framework of security and order, is neccesary to the bourgeois mode of production, was an artificial, historical construct. It was the synthesis of many particularities, which, in various European countries in different ways, had been brought under authoritarian rule. Absolutist rule was based on the principle of the "patriarchal government of society in the manner of a country estate. Neither in those countries in which a bourgeois revolution took place, nor in those where monarchy and cameralistics, acting as trustees, concluded deals on behalf of the bourgeoisie, was this contradiction resolved. Like the concept of the public sphere, the concept of the state therefore possesses an extraordinary breadth. The change from offensive to defensive state activity cannot be explained solely in terms of the growth or decline of bourgeois and feudal interests. Rather, both social interests express themselves at different times in this change in state power. The changing nature of the bourgeois state is echoed at every stage of the development of the state in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, and it is not specific to absolutism. Alongside the state as treasury, as judiciary, and as the administration of sovereignty-whose common goal is to exist as rational forms of state power-there stands, unrelated, authoritarian rule, of which Jellinek says: "One can speak of authoritarian government to the extent that the power proper to the state or to other bearers of public authority is confirmed in government. The authoritarian element lies in the supremacy of public authority over the individual. It can be grasped legally if one considers the means whereby authoritarian government carries out its goals. The greater effectiveness of the administrative act consists, however, in its relative lack of sensitivity toward its own imperfections. Army and police, special agents and organizations become the exclusive holders of this monopoly. This specialization is the product of the conflict between precapitalist elements, which are regarded as alien by the bourgeois public sphere, and the interest of the bourgeoisie to subsume the state under its class and its rationalizing tendency, which strives to universalize the relations of production and of social intercourse. Bourgeois sociologists such as Comte have, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, tried to prove the inherent irreconcilability of the industrial and military spirit. For them the military, including the purely public police, is a relic of an antiquated feudal order. At the same time, the bourgeoisie recognized that peaceful commodity production and exchange require the protection of the private legal order through force. This is why bourgeois interests, which were in conflict with the precapitalist forms of the power monopoly, could not, in their ambivalence, unequivocally assert themselves. Even in cases where bourgeois interests were powerful enough to assert themselves, prebourgeois instruments of power were maintained. Bourgeois interests attempt to enlist these forces, especially the army, police, a network of informants, and a censorship system, in a limited and instrumental way. These bodies, however, operate according to their own, in part noncapitalist, norms. This is the most important definition of the bourgeois state: in its content it is in Western Europe since the first industrial revolution have oscillated between aristocratic monarchy, plebiscite Caesarism, a conservative parliamentarianism with voting rights for ten percent and occasionally less than five percent of the population, and unmediated autocracy. It enlists the army, the police, and the judiciary for its own interests, but it cannot reduce or redirect these instruments as quickly as its own interests are satisfied or changed. The bourgeoisie has repeatedly attempted to resolve the following contradiction: whereas it defines the content of threats of force, it has to entrust the form in which force is implemented to extraneous specialists (such as officer corps, police agents, diplomats, or the aristocracy). This has been attempted by introducing general conscription, the idea of the militia and national guard, and by demanding that world politics should be public, that cabinet politics be abolished. On the contrary, since the end of the nineteenth century, professional armies have existed in the external form of conscript armies. The police authorities, for instance, behave toward capital like professional members of an organization that is mediated autonomously within itself and that does not understand itself as a profitmaking endeavor. On the ambiguity of the police apparatus, refer to the following: Erhard Denninger, Polizei in der freiheitlichen Demokratie (Frankfurt: 1968); B. Wacke, Allgemeines Polizeirecht-Ordnungsrecht-der Lдnder und des Bundes, 7th ed. On interaction within the monopoly on power, see Fritz von Calker, Das Recht des Militдrs zum administrativen Waffengebrauch (1888); Endres, Der militдrische Waffengebrauch (1903); Romen Rissom, Waffengebrauch und Festnahmerecht des Militдrs (1914); R. Liebmann, Die polizeilichen Aufgaben der deutschen Wehrmacht (1926); Janisch, "Militдr und Polizei," in Die Polizei, vol. Within the history of the German police, two mutually exclusive trends compete with each other.


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