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Respiratory distress is a key symptom in bacterial tracheitis and requires immediate medical attention antibiotic resistance in hospitals generic uroctal 400 mg with amex. Interdisciplinary Interventions Vigorous management script virus uroctal 400mg with visa, including early recognition of bacterial tracheitis and prompt attention to the airway, is necessary to prevent the airway from being obstructed by the thick secretions. The child should be hospitalized, and appropriate emergency airway management equipment should be available. Frequent tracheal suctioning is necessary to keep the airway patent, and often the child has an artificial airway (endotracheal tube) in place. This management is especially important in the younger child, who is at risk for abrupt airway obstruction. Additionally, the child requires humidified oxygen, parenteral broadspectrum antibiotics (for 10­14 days), and antipyretics for fever and discomfort. Apneic episodes lasting longer than 20 seconds, and shorter respiratory pauses associated with cyanosis, bradycardia, pallor (paleness), or limpness, are considered pathologic apnea. This definition is simply a description of a characteristic clinical syndrome, not a specific disease process. Three general types of apnea occur: 688 Unit 3 n n Managing Health Challenges edema) or interference with cerebral metabolic function. The prognosis for these infants depends on the etiology and treatment of the underlying cause. Assessment Apnea may present simply as a parental report of prolonged asymptomatic respiratory pauses during sleep or as dramatically as a witnessed complete cessation of breathing and absence of a heart rate. A single mild episode that required little or no intervention does not necessitate an extensive diagnostic evaluation or aggressive therapy and has little prognostic importance. The most important element of assessment is, therefore, to obtain a careful history from the person who witnessed the event. Interview the witness to determine the color of the child when found (pale, or blue/cyanotic), whether the child had any respirations, and whether the child was limp. Collaborate with other healthcare personnel to gain as much detail as possible about the event itself, the physical condition of the infant before and after the event, and circumstances surrounding its occurrence. Assess the reliability of the historian and look for any signs of child abuse or neglect; also evaluate the potential for sepsis. Symptoms include snoring, periods of observed apnea, heavy breathing, broken or restless sleep, bad dreams, and failure to grow or thrive. Other diagnostic tests may include but are not limited to arterial or capillary blood gases (persistent acidosis indicates a severe event or a chronic metabolic disorder); complete blood counts (anemia may precipitate apnea, polycythemia reflects chronic hypoxia, elevated white blood cell count indicates infection); and serum electrolyte, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen levels (numerous abnormalities, such as hypocalcemia and hypoglycemia, may contribute to the development of apnea). Continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and frequent assessment of color, breathing patterns and effort, and tone are appropriate healthcare interventions. The preterm infant who continues to exhibit symptomatic apnea during the hospital stay should also be evaluated carefully for hypoxia or anemia, which can cause apnea in the premature infant. In the absence of hypoxia or anemia, preterm infants who are still having clinical episodes of apnea can be discharged with home apnea and bradycardia monitoring equipment. Agents such as theophylline, aminophylline, or caffeine are sometimes useful in decreasing the severity and frequency of apneic episodes. These medications are central nervous system stimulants that act on the respiratory center of the brain and therefore are sometimes effective in treating central apnea only. Besides stimulating the respiratory center, these drugs also act on the kidney, heart, and skeletal and smooth muscles. Parents and caregivers must be taught to draw up and administer the medications and observe for toxic side effects (tachycardia, vomiting, excessive irritability). Other options include weight reduction, inhaled corticosteroids, or positive-pressure airway breathing (including continuous positive airway pressure). Much guidance and reassurance is needed, in conjunction with education, to increase parental confidence and problem-solving skills. Home monitors serve only to alert the caregiver that an apneic episode is occurring. The parent or caregiver must then respond and act to evaluate and terminate the apneic episode. Most parents feel the need to use the monitor at all times when the infant is Interdisciplinary Interventions Optimal care of infants who have had an episode of apnea accompanied by color change or who present with a seri- Chapter 16 n n the Child With Altered Respiratory Status 689 not being directly observed. Minimum environmental requirements include electricity, a telephone in the home, and availability of caregivers trained to respond to the apnea alarm. This inpatient evaluation of the family system is crucial in determining the teaching plan and coordinating follow-up.

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Postharvest Pathology Brown rot is caused by Monilinia fructicola and is the most important postharvest disease of stone fruits virus replication buy uroctal 400mg online. Infection begins during flowering and fruit rot may occur before harvest but often appears postharvest antibiotics with pseudomonas coverage buy uroctal 400 mg without a prescription. Orchard sanitation to minimize infection sources, preharvest fungicide application, and prompt cooling after harvest are among the control strategies. Gray mold is caused by Botrytis cinerea and can be serious during wet spring weather. It can occur during storage if the fruit has been contaminated through harvest and handling wounds. Avoiding mechanical injuries and good temperature management are effective control measures. These symptoms develop during ripening after a cold-storage period, and thus are usually detected by consumers. In susceptible 420 Rhizopus rot is caused by Rhizopus stolonifer and can occur in ripe or near-ripe fruit at 20 to 25 °C (68 to 77 °F). Suitability as Fresh-Cut Product the optimal ripeness for preparing fresh-cut nectarines slices is the partially ripe (>27 to 49 N, >6 to 11 lb-force) or ripe (>13 to 27 N, >3 to 6 lb-force) flesh firmness stages. Quarantine Issues Because some insects such as Conotracherlus nenuphar (plum curculio), Cydia pomonella (codling moth), Rhagoletis pommonella (apple maggot), and Tetranychus pacificus (Pacific spider mite) are not present in some import markets, phytosanitary restrictions have been established. Issues with exotic pest quarantine, addressing imported and exported nectarines, can change rapidly. For nectarines, there are three main ways to deal with these phytosanitary requirements: inspection prior to shipment (including use of screened crates transported in sealed containers), methyl bromide fumigation, and a systems approach. A phytosanitary certificate is required to import California nectarines into Taiwan. Nectarines must be free of Anarsia ineatella (peach twig borer), Conotracherlus nenuphar (plum curculio), Cydia pomonella (codling moth), Erwinia amylovora (fire bright), Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot), Tetranychus pacificus (Pacific spider mite), and Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly). If these conditions cannot be met, then fruit must be treated with an appropriate treatment prior to shipment. Special Considerations Because nectarines are a climacteric fruit, they are harvested at a minimum or higher maturity but are not fully ripe; that is, they are not ready to eat. Acknowledgments Some of the information in this chapter is from the University of California, Davis, website "Produce Facts" at postharvest. Effect of fruit ripeness and storage temperature on the deterioration rate of fresh-cut peach and nectarine slices. Shellie and Gene Lester Shellie and Lester are formerly with the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U. Damage includes liquid in the seed cavity, hail injury, surface mold, aphid honeydew, scars, cracks, ground spot rind disorders, bruises, and mechanical damage. True cantaloupes, members of the Cantaloupensis group, are nonnetted fruit common to Cantaluppi, Italy, and are seldom grown in the United States. Western Shipper melons (grown in Arizona, California, and Texas) are grown principally for domestic and export markets, while Eastern Choice melons (grown in the eastern United States) are more perishable and are used principally for local consumption. A heavy, uniform, tan-colored net and bright orange flesh characterizes the external appearance of Western Shipper and Eastern Choice melons. Eastern Choice melons are often deeply sutured, while Western Shipper melons usually lack sutures. Charentais, galia, ananas, and Persian melons are not commonly grown in the United States, but are gaining popularity as specialty melons. The French Charentais is a round, sparsely netted melon with a grey-green rind having pronounced dark-green longitudinal tracts; it has a sweet, highly-scented, orange flesh. Galia melons from Israel are characterized by a fine, uniform net, round shape, and green flesh (Karchi and Govers 1977). The shape and netting of Persian melons are similar to those of Western Shipper type melons, but Persian melons are Horticultural Maturity Indices Stem separation and background rind color are used to indicate acceptable maturity for harvest.

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There are still large areas of the world in which peas-ants who cultivate the land with their traditional tools not only form the vast majority of the population antibiotics for dogs at petco order uroctal 400mg free shipping, but also furnish the funds of rent and profit which underwrite the entire social structure are antibiotics good for acne yahoo uroctal 400mg low price. In such societies, all other social groups depend upon peasants both for their food and for any income that may accrue to them. There are other societies, however, in which the Industrial Revolution has created vast complexes of machines that produce goods quite independently of peasants. If there are any peasants left in such societies, they occupy a secondary position in the creation of wealth. Moreover, the vast and growing numbers of industrial workers who man the wealth-creating machines must also be fed. Both kinds of society contain threats to the peasant, whether these threats emanate from demands for surplus, or from competition which may render the peasant economically useless. People who are paid wages to cultivate the land are capitalist workers-members of the proletariat. People who work the land and pay rents to absentee landowners and the state are more likely to be peasants. Moreover, it does not merely feed its members; it also supplies them with many other services. In such a unit children are raised and socialized to the demands of the adult world. Marriage provides sexual satisfaction, and relationships within the unit generate affection which ties the members to each other. Us ing its ceremonial fund, such a unit pays " the costs of representation " incurred by its members within the larger community. Hence, labor is contributed as needed in a great number of different contexts; its expenditure is not prompted directly by the existence of an economic system governed by prices and profits. We are, of course, familiar with this kind of economic behavior in our own society. A mother will also sit up all night with a sick child or cook a meal for the family, without reckoning the cost of her labor. It has been estimated, for example, that in our society a man can save annually $ 6 0 0 0 - $ 8 0 0 0 in payments for economic services if he gets married, rather than paying for their performance by specialists at prices current in the open market. Within the family, such labors of love are performed readily, without the need for cost accounting. Most other forms of anthropology (particularly functionalism) consider conflict to be mediated by ritual. Wolf explored this theme in substantial detail in his subsequent book, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century (1969). The outsider may look down upon the peasant as upon a sheep to be shorn periodically of its wool: " three bags f u l l - o n e for my master, one for my dame, and one for the little boy who lives down the lane. These needs, as we have indicated above, are culturally relative; they will differ in China from what they are in Puerto Rico. Yet they are both functionally and logically prior to the demands of the outsider, whether lord or merchant. This attitude is neatly implied in the old song, sung during the peasant uprisings of the late European Middle Ages: When Adam delved and Eve span, Who was then the gentleman? Peasant n e e d s - the requirement to maintain a caloric minimum, a replacement fund, and a ceremonial f u n d - w i l l often conflict with the requirements imposed by the outsider. Yet if it is correct to define the peasantry pri marily in terms of its sub-ordinate relationships to a group of controlling outsiders, it is also correct to assert as a corollary of this definition that a peasantry will be forced to maintain a balance between its own demands and the demands of the outsiders and will be subject to the ten sions produced by this struggle to keep the balance. The outsider sees the peasant primarily as a source of labor and goods with which to in-crease his fund of power. But the peasant is at once an economic agent and the head of a 70 A critical feature that differentiates Marxist analysis in all of its forms is an emphasis on conflict. Up until now, Wolf has described the fundamental relations of production for the peasantry. If the peasant considers his replacement fund and ceremonial fund to have priority over payments to landowners and states, these later will rarely share that opinion-and Peasantry and Its Problems, Eric Wolf and goods in the m a r k e t - the i r economic and social survival depends on it. Certainly many anthropologists would second Sol Tax, who concluded in a study of Indian peasants in Guatemala that "the purchasers of goods make a choice of markets ac-cording to what they want to buy and how much time they are willing to spend to get it more cheaply and closer to its source.

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However using topical antibiotics for acne order uroctal 400 mg with visa, hegemony is negotiated as intellectuals and oppressed classes create counter-hegemonies to taking antibiotics for sinus infection order 400mg uroctal overnight delivery challenge elite ideas. In this pas-sage, Appadurai notes that individuals are able to challenge and subvert the "official mind. It has moved from the University of Pennsylvania to the University of Toronto and the United Nations in New York. Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, Arjun Appadurai United States or of real-estate costs in New York and Tokyo, without taking sophisticated account of the very complex fiscal and investment flows that link the two economies through a global grid of currency speculation and capital transfer? Thus it is useful to speak as well of financescapes, as the disposition of global capital is now a more mysterious, rapid, and difficult landscape to follow than ever before, as currency markets, national stock exchanges, and commodity speculations move megamonies through national turnstiles at blinding speed, with vast, absolute implications for small differences in percentage points and time units. But the critical point is that the global relationship among ethnoscapes, technoscapes, and financescapes is deeply disjunctive and profoundly unpredictable because each of these landscapes is subject to its own constraints and incentives (some political, some informational, and some technoenvironmental), at the same time as each acts as a constraint and a parameter for movements in the others. Thus, even an elementary model of global political economy must take into account the deeply disjunctive relationships among human movement, technological flow, and financial transfers. Further refracting these disjunctures (which hardly form a simple, mechanical global infrastructure in any case) are what I call mediascapes and ideoscapes, which are closely related landscapes of images. Mediascapes refer both to the distribution of the electronic capabilities to produce and disseminate information (newspapers, magazines, television stations, and film-production studios), which are now available to a growing number of private and public interests throughout the world, and to the images of the world created by these media. These images involve many complicated inflections, depending on their mode (documentary or entertainment), their hardware (electronic or preelectronic), their audiences (local, national, or transnational), and the interests of those who own and control them. What is most important about these mediascapes is that 589 they provide (especially in their television, film, and cassette forms) large and complex repertoires of images, narratives, and ethnoscapes to viewers throughout the world, in which the world of commodities and the world of news and politics are profoundly mixed. What this means is that many audiences around the world experience the media themselves as a complicated and interconnected repertoire of print, celluloid, electronic screens, and billboards. The lines between the realistic and the fictional landscapes they see are blurred, so that the farther away these audiences are from the direct experiences of metropolitan life, the more likely they are to construct imagined worlds that are chimerical, aesthetic, even fantastic objects, particularly if assessed by the criteria of some other perspective, some other imagined world. Mediascapes, whether produced by private or state interests, tend to be image-centered, narrative-based accounts of strips of reality, and what they offer to those who experience and trans-form them is a series of elements (such as characters, plots, and textual forms) out of which scripts can be formed of imagined lives, their own as well as those of others living in other places. These scripts can and do get disaggregated into complex sets of metaphors by which people live (Lakoff and Johnson 1980) as they help to constitute narratives of the Other and protonarratives of possible lives, fantasies that could become prolegomena to the desire for acquisition and movement. These ideoscapes are composed of elements of the Englightenment worldview, which consists of a chain of ideas, terms, and images, including freedom, welfare, rights, sovereignty, representation, and the master term democracy. The master narrative of the Enlightenment (and its many variants in Britain, France, and the United States) was constructed with a certain internal logic and 14 Prolegomena: an introduction or introductory comments. As a result of the differential diaspora of these keywords, the political narratives that govern communication between elites and followers in different parts of the world involve problems of both a semantic and pragmatic nature: semantic to the extent that words (and their lexical equivalents) require careful translation from context to context in their global movements, and pragmatic to the extent that the use of these words by political actors and their audiences may be subject to very different sets of contextual conventions that mediate their translation into public politics. Such conventions are not only matters of the nature of political rhetoric: for example, what does the aging Chinese leadership mean when it refers to the dangers of hooliganism? What does the South Korean leadership mean when it speaks of discipline as the key to democratic industrial growth? These conventions also involve the far more subtle question of what sets of communicative genres are valued in what way (newspapers versus cinema, for example) and what sorts of pragmatic genre conventions govern the collective readings of different kinds of text. So, while an Indian audience may be attentive to the resonances of a political speech in terms of some keywords and phrases reminiscent of Hindi cinema, a Korean audience may respond to the subtle codings of Buddhist or neo-Confucian rhetoric encoded in a political document. The very relationship of reading to hearing and seeing may vary in important ways that determine the morphology of these different ideoscapes as they shape themselves in different national and transnational contexts. Thus democracy has clearly become a master term, with powerful echoes from Haiti and Poland to the former Soviet Union and China, but it sits at the center of a variety of ideoscapes, composed of distinctive pragmatic configurations of rough translations of other central terms from the vocabulary of the Enlightenment. This creates ever new terminological kaleidoscopes, as states (and the groups that seek to capture them) seek to pacify populations whose own ethnoscapes are in motion and whose mediascapes may create severe problems for the ideoscapes with which they are presented. The fluidity of ideoscapes is complicated in particular by the growing diasporas (both voluntary and involuntary) of intellectuals who continuously inject new meaning-streams into the discourse of democracy in different parts of the world. So, for example, the authors of the Declaration of Independence did not intend for any of its wording to resonate with either Buddhist or Confucian thinking, which they were not particularly aware of either. Yet, passages of that document may take on special meaning for individuals in those traditions because, by chance, they do so resonate. These meanings may, or may not have anything to do with what the authors intended. From a postmodern perspective, loss of authorial control is an aspect of all text. Appadurai points out that this is much more the case when text (and movies and advertisement and all other forms of communication) move among people of radically different cultures and histories. Appadurai here employs a fundamental element of postmodern thinking particularly shaped by the work of Jacques Derrida (1930-2004).

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The national estimates are summarized in Table 18 antibiotic resistance evolves in bacteria because generic 400 mg uroctal visa, in which intakes on a body-weight basis have been converted to infection related to uroctal 400 mg otc micrograms per day by assuming an average body weight of 60 kg for an adult over a lifetime. First, many of the national estimates were based on intakes of maize-containing food products, which are generally less heavily contaminated with fumonisins than the maize or maize flour used to make them. Finally, exported maize appears to be more heavily contaminated with fumonisins than maize used domestically in food products (Rheeder et al. The main assumption in this model is that maize would not be consumed at a concentration above the maximum limit. Additionally, it was assumed that the existence of a limit would have no effect on the distribution of fumonisins in maize below that limit, i. An approximation of the percentage of maize samples that would be rejected at each limit, assuming no change in production practices, is included. Of these, the fumonisins of the B series (8 1, 8 2, 8 3) are the most widespread in nature Table 19. Potential intake of fumonisins from maize in the African diet when various limits are imposed and enforced Limit (mg/kg} Intake of fumonisins (µg/day per person) Mean None 1 2 5 10 140 27 46 86 120 Minimum 0. In a survey of the production of fumonisins 8 1 and 8 2 by 40 toxic Fusarium isolates, the toxins were produced only by F moniliforme, F. The potential presence of fumonisins in agricultural produce and processed foods is therefore a serious threat to public health, and efforts have been made to find ways of preventing or reducing the accumulation of fumonisins. Insect damage also affects the accumulation of fumonisins, and both the prevalence and degree of insect damage are significantly correlated with the concentrations of the toxins. Maintenance of rigorous insect control may assist in reducing fumonisin contamination. However, hybrids grown in areas outside those to which they were adapted had enhanced fumonisins contents {Shelby et al. Hybrids that accumulate lower concentrations of fumonisins should therefore be screened in each growing area as part ot a selection programme. Several genetic mechanisms may be responsible for the low incidence of toxins in some plants. In maize hybrids genetically engineered for insect resistance (by insertion of Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding the 8-endotoxin CrylA(b) expressed in kernels), the kernels consistently had less Fusarium ear rot and Fusarium infection than kernels from normal plants (Munkvold et al. Thus, engineering of maize for insect resistance may reduce Fusarium infection in the kernels and the subsequent accumulation of fumonisin. Several mechanisms might be involved in the reduced concentrations of fumonisins in certqin varieties, however. Their elucidation would provide a basis for planning breeding or genetic engineering strategies designed to develop host resistance. Different methods can be combined to achieve a synergistic effect, expressed as enhanced activity. It was con-eluded that environmental factors, fungal colonization, and preservatives interact in the grain ecosystem. Fumonisin production did not correlate with the fungal growth rate but was affected by interactions between growth conditions and propionate concentration (Marin et al. Feeding animals maize screenings has been correlated directly with diseases caused by fumonisins (equine leukoencephalomacia and porcine pulmonary oedema) (Harrison et al. Thus, removal of all dockage constituents and bulk cleaning might reduce the concentrations of fumonisins (Sydenham et al. Several parameters, such as temperature, length of application, moisture content, ammonia concentration, and toxin concentration, could affect the efficacy of ammoniation, and the roles of these parameters in the process should be studied. Another approach to the detoxication of fumonisin B1 involves a reaction with fructose to block the amine group, which is critical for its toxicity. The toxicity of fumonisin 6 1 to rats was indeed eliminated by such treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for fumonisin detoxication (Lu et al. Exposure of maize to 15 kGy of y-irradiation, which is known to destroy mycotoxins, sterilized the maize but reduced the concentrations of fumonisins 8 1 and 82 by only 20% (Visconti et al. These factor account for extrapolation from animals to humans, variation in the human response, and, sometimes, for less-than-adequate data.

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As a result antibiotics for treating sinus infection purchase 400mg uroctal amex, Darwinian evolution was readily accepted by the scientific community antibiotics for acne ireland uroctal 400 mg online. Though Herbert Spencer was the son of a schoolmaster, he was largely self-educated. He worked as a civil engineer for the Birmingham and London Railway and then as a subeditor for the Economist, a news magazine that promoted free market capitalism. In 1853, having received a small inheritance Spencer was able to leave the Economist to devote himself full time to writing. Spencer was interested in evolution as a general phenomenon, and he applied his evolutionary approach to many fields of study. Garbarino (1977:21) calls him a "philosopher of universal evolution" because Spencer considered evolution secret notebooks in which he organized his thoughts about evolution. He studied the materials he had collected and gave considerable attention to commercial plant and animal breeders in whose work he saw a practical application of his concepts. He collected data, organized his notes, and in 1844 composed a draft of his ideas that he showed to his close friend, the eminent botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911). However, aware of the controversy his ideas would arouse, he refrained from publishing his work. Darwin had been refining his ideas for twenty years when he received a letter in June of 1858 from a young naturalist with whom he had been corresponding, Alfred Russell Wallace (18231913). From his own observations in Malaysia Wallace had independently formulated the theory that Darwin had been working so diligently to substantiate. He published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in November 1859. Darwin held that change within species must follow natural laws like those found in the physical sciences. In On the Origin of Species, he outlined a theory he called natural selection and proposed that it was the fundamental principle of biological change. Darwin began with the idea that more organisms were born than survived to adulthood, a widely accepted concept derived from "An Essay on the Principle of Population," published in 1798 by Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), then speculated about the factors that determined which individuals survived and which did not. Because small variations occur in the appearance or behavioral characteristics of members of any population, Darwin hypothesized that some variations were better than others in that they led those who possessed them to more successfully compete for food, shelter, and mates. These individuals would subsequently produce more offspring who themselves survived and reproduced. Darwin called the characteristics that led to increased numbers of surviving and reproducing offspring " adaptive. His ideas had enormous impact in Britain and the United States, not only on anthropology and sociology but on literature, politics, and popular culture as well (Carneiro 1967:xi). Spencer believed that evolution was progressive and that evolutionary change was from simple to more complex states. He argued that evolutionary progress occurred because life was a struggle for survival in which only those with superior skills and traits succeeded. As illustrated in the selection reprinted in this hook, " the Social Organism," Spencer compared human societies to biological organisms. He used this analogy to link biological and social evolution, implying both followed the same processes and direction. This suggested that social evolution could be studied in the same fashion that one studied biological evolution. If this was the case, these organs could be accurately identified and their role and function in maintaining society described. These ideas, in various forms, set the agenda for much of anthropology in the century following the publication of "The Social Organism. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, " However, this apparent agreement hid a pro-found disagreement about the mechanisms of evolution. Instead, he believed that evolution was a general moral force pervading the universe and that the mechanisms of evolution on which he focused were Lamarckian, involving the transmission of learned behavior from one generation to the next. All humans are ethnocentric to one degree or another, and nineteenth-century Europeans and 9 Americans were no exception. Looking with pride at their industrial advances and burgeoning economic and military power, members of Western societies believed they were at the pinnacle of social evolution. Social darwinists interpreted natural selection to mean that if evolution was progress and only the fittest survived, then it was the right of Western powers to dominate those who were less technologically advanced. According to this line of reasoning, the domination of one society by another proved its superiority and its advanced level of fitness.

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The superorganism came instantly apart as its components scattered in all directions bacteria dies at what temperature order uroctal 400 mg amex. People raced down the road medicine for uti relief purchase 400 mg uroctal fast delivery, disappeared headfirst over walls, scrambled under platforms, folded themselves behind wicker screens, scuttled up coconut trees. Cocks armed with steel spurs sharp enough to cut off a finger or run a hole through a foot were running wildly around. On the established anthropological principle, " When in Rome," my wife and I decided, only slightly less instantaneously than everyone else, that the thing to do was run too. We ran down the main village street, northward, away from where we were living, for we were on that side of the ring. About halfway clown another fugitive ducked suddenly into a compound-his own, it offerings, staring into space, carrying baskets about while one drifts around feeling vaguely disembodied. When you first meet a Balinese, he seems virtually not to relate to you at all; he is, in the term Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead made famous, "away. Though you are not exactly taken as a Balinese (one has to be born to that), you are at least regarded as a human being rather than a cloud or a gust of wind. The whole complexion of your relationship dramatically changes to, in the majority of cases, a gentle, almost affectionate one-a low-keyed, rather playful, rather mannered, rather bemused geniality. My wife and I were still very much in the gustof-wind stage, a most frustrating, and even, as you soon begin to doubt whether you are really real after all, unnerving one, when, ten days or so after our arrival, a large cockfight was held in the public square to raise money for a new school. Now, a few special occasions aside, cockfights are illegal in Bali under the Republic (as, for not altogether unrelated reasons, they were under the Dutch), largely as a result of the pretensions to puritanism radical nationalism tends to bring with it. The elite, which is not itself so very puritan, worries about the poor, ignorant peasant gambling all his money away, about what foreigners will think, about the waste of time better devoted to building up the country. It sees " " cockfighting as primitive," backward," " unprogressive," and generally unbecoming an ambitious nation. And, as with those other embarrassments-opium smoking, begging, or uncovered breasts-it seeks, rather unsystematically, to put a stop to it. Of course, like drinking during Prohibition or, today, smoking marihuana, cockfights, being a part of "The Balinese Way of Life," nonetheless go on happening, and with extraordinary frequency. And, as with Prohibition or marihuana, from time to time the police (who, in 1958 at Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, Clifford Geertz turned out-and we, seeing nothing ahead of us but rice fields, open country, and a very high volcano, followed him. As the three of us came tumbling into the courtyard, his wife, who had apparently been through this sort of thing before, whipped out a table, a tablecloth, three chairs, and three cups of tea, and we all, without any explicit communication whatsoever, sat down, commenced to sip tea, and sought to compose ourselves. A few moments later, one of the policemen marched importantly into the yard, looking for the village chief. When the truck drove up he ran to the river, stripped off his sarong, and plunged in so he could say, when at length they found him sitting there pouring water over his head, that he had been away bathing when the whole affair had occurred and was ignorant of it. They did not believe him and fined him three hundred rupiah, which the village raised collectively. When he found his voice again he asked, approximately, what in the devil did we think we were doing there. Our host of five minutes leaped instantly to our defense, producing an impassioned description of who and what we were, so detailed and so accurate that it was my turn, having barely communicated with a living human being save my landlord and the village chief for more than a week, to be astonished. We had a perfect right to be there, he said, looking the Javanese upstart in the eye. We were American professors; the government had cleared us; we were there to study culture; we were going to write a book to tell Americans about Bali. And we had all been there drinking tea and talking about cultural matters all after-noon and did not know anything about any cock-fight. And, after a decent interval, bewildered but relieved to have survived and stayed out of jail, so did we. Not only were we no longer invisible, we were suddenly the center of all attention, the object of a great outpouring 513 of warmth, interest, and most especially, amusement. But above all, everyone was extremely pleased and even more surprised that we had not simply "pulled out our papers" (they knew about those too) and asserted our Distinguished Visitor status, but had instead demonstrated our solidarity with what were now our covillagers. It was the turning point so far as our relationship to the community was concerned, and we were quite literally "in.

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Preservative solutions are recommended; benefits vary from 0 to varicella zoster virus purchase uroctal 400mg amex 150% increase in vase life antibiotic infusion therapy buy cheap uroctal 400mg, depending on cultivar, flower food brand, and water quality. Do not place in the same bucket with daffodils that have been just recut, as the mucilage exuded by daffodils can reduce the vase life of tulips. Tulip flower stems (scapes) often continue to elongate after harvest and will often grow out of the arrangement. Stems should be maintained in an upright position during handling to prevent stem bending. Waxflower, Geraldton Waxflower Scientific Name and Introduction Chamelaucium uncinatum. It is produced in substantial quantities in Israel and more recently in Australia and California. Various techniques have been developed to manipulate the flowering season, and the availability of substantial volumes from the Southern Hemisphere makes waxflower an item that is commonly available in the trade. The specific epithet uncinatum means "hooked Ethylene Sensitivity Tulips show no response to ethylene nor any response to inhibitors of ethylene actions or synthesis (Sexton et al. It has been reported that flowers stored dry in bunches can keep up to 7 weeks if sealed in polyethylene bags or kept in boxes overwrapped with polyethylene. Desiccation of tulips can be a serious problem, causing collapse of the stem below flowers. If properly precooled and subsequently wrapped in plastic to reduce water loss, flowers can be stored dry for up to 2 weeks at 1 °C (34 °F). There is no benefit of wet over dry storage, and dry storage is therefore the method of choice. Dipping in 1% Rovral (Ipridione) solution prior to storage can prevent Botrytis infection. Quality Characteristics and Criteria Waxflowers are normally harvested with a mixture of open flowers and mature buds on each branchlet. Packing Waxflowers are packed in bunches that contain variable numbers of stems (around 10) to provide a satisfactory bunch. Special Considerations the major storage problems are flower shatter (flowers fall off) and premature leaf yellowing and desiccation. Grading and Bunching There are no grade standards for the flowers, which are sold in field bunches. Quality waxflowers have numerous flowers on long stems and dark-green unblemished foliage. Waxflower bunches from Australia weigh 300 g per bunch, whereas California bunches usually weigh 400 g. Yellow Aster Scientific Name and Introduction Ethylene Sensitivity Waxflowers are very sensitive to ethylene, which causes loss of flowers, buds, and leaves (Joyce 1993). The "Ч" prior to the generic name indicates that this species is an intergenetic hybrid, the result of crossing two different genera (Aster and Solidago). Heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 allele inhibits the senescence of carnation flowers. Effect of preharvest factors on flower quality and longevity of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Effects of the production environment on the susceptibility of rose flowers to postharvest infection by Botrytis cinerea. Ethylene Sensitivity Like other Asteraceae, solidaster flowers are not sensitive to ethylene. Pretreatments Like Solidago, solidaster flowers probably would benefit from a cytokinin pulse treatment to delay leaf yellowing (Philosoph et al. Special Considerations If flowers are too immature when harvested, they may not develop to their maximum beauty. Leaves should be stripped from the stem as they rot underwater and will foul the vase solution.

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Yet what it says is not merely that risk is exciting antimicrobial growth promoters 400 mg uroctal with mastercard, loss depressing antimicrobial flooring cheap uroctal 400 mg otc, or triumph gratifying, banal tautologies of affect, but that it is of these emotions, thus exampled, that society is built and individuals are put together. Attending cockfights and participating in them is, for the Balinese, a kind of sentimental education. The cockfight is the Balinese reflection on theirs: on its look, its uses, its force, its fascination. Drawing on almost every level of Balinese experience, it brings together the m e s a n i m a l savagery, male narcissism, opponent gambling, status rivalry, mass excitement, blood sacrifice-whose main connection is their involvement with rage and the fear of rage, and, binding them into a set of rules which at once contains them and allows them play, builds a symbolic structure in which, over and over again, the reality of their inner affiliation can be intelligibly felt. If, to quote Northrop Frye again, we go to see Macbeth to learn what a man feels like after he has gained a kingdom and lost his soul, Balinese go to cockfights to find out what a man, posed was a systematic procedure for the perfection of human nature. Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher whose work was influential in the development of existentialism. His book, the Birth of Tragedy (1956 [18711), was important to the work of Ruth Benedict and is discussed in essay 16. In this final section, Geertz summarizes his argument and explains how the cockfight attains personal significance for Balinese participants. Up to now the analysis has been very particular, but his conclusions try to say something universal about the nature of culture: that cultures are a form of text. In one of his best known works, Ethics, he set out a geometrical program of definitions, axioms, postulates, and theorems that he pro24 530 Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology fight, with the active watching of an owner and a bettor (for cockfighting has no more interest as a pure spectator sport than does croquet or dog racing), he grows familiar with it and what it has to say to him, much as the attentive listener to string quartets or the absorbed viewer of still life grows slowly more familiar with them in a way which opens his subjectivity to himself. Quartets, still lifes, and cockfights are not merely reflections of a pre-existing sensibility analogically represented; they are positive agents in the creation and maintenance of such a sensibility. If we see ourselves as a pack of Micawbers, it is from reading too much Dickens (if we see ourselves as unillusioned realists, it is from reading too little); and similarly for Balinese, cocks, and cockfights. It is in such a way, coloring experience with the light they cast it in, rather than through whatever material effects they may have, that the arts play their role, as arts, in social life. Not only are there a great many other cultural texts providing commentaries on status hierarchy and selfregard in Bali, but there are a great many other critical sectors of Balinese life besides the stratificatory and the agonistic that receive such commentary. The ceremony consecrating a Brahrnana priest, a matter of breath control, postural immobility, and vacant concentration upon the depths of being, displays a radically different, but to the Balinese equally real, property of social hierarchy-its reach toward the numinouszs transcendent. Set not in the matrix of the kinetic emotionality of animals, but in that of the static passionlessness of divine mentality, it expresses tranquillity not disquiet. The whole passage, as it takes us back to Aristotle (though to the Poetics rather than the Hermeneutics), is worth quotation: But the poet [as opposed to the historian], Aristotle says, never makes any real statements at all, certainly no particular or specific ones. Our impressions of human life are picked up one by one, and remain for most of us loose and disorganized. But we concoordinate and bring into focus a great many such impressions, and this is part of what Aristotle means by the typical or universal human event. Enacted and re-enacted, so far without end, the cockfight enables the Balinese, as, read and reread, Macbeth enables us, to see a dimension of his own subjectivity. Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, Clifford Geertz cal p o p u l a t i o n in e l a b o r a t e ho st in gs of visiting g o d s - s o n g s, dances, compliments, g i f t s - a s s e r t the spiritua l unity of village m a t e s aga inst the ir sta tus ine qua lity a n d projec t a mood of amity and tr ust. W h a t it says a b o u t th a t life is not u nq ualif ie d n or e ve n u n c h a l l e n g e d b y w h a t o the r e q u a l l y e l o q u e n t cultur a l s t a t e m e n t s say a b o u t it. But the r e is n o t h i n g m o r e su rpr is in g in this t h a n in the fact t h a t R a c i n e a n d Mo li e re w e r e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s, or t h a t th e s a m e peo pl e who a rr a n ge c h r y s a n the m u m s cast swords. There are enormous difficulties in s u c h an enterprise, methodological pitfalls to make a Fr eu d ia n qua ke, and some moral pe r p l e x i t i e s a s w e l l. N o r i s i t the o n l y w a y t h a t 531 symbolic f o r m s c a n be sociologically h a n d l e d. But to regard s u c h forms as "saying s o m e t h i n g of some thing, " and saying it to somebody, is at least to o p e n u p the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n a n a l y s i s w h i c h a t- t e n d s to their su bs ta nc e ra ther t h a n to reductive formula s professing to a c c o u n t for the m. O n e ca n sta y, as I h a ve h e r e, w i t h i n a sin g le, m o r e o r le ss b o u n d e d f or m, and circle steadily within it. O n e can move b e t w e e n forms in se a rc h of b r o a d e r unities or inf o r m i n g c o n tra sts.

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Additional disorders include russet spotting antimicrobial ointment cheap uroctal 400 mg without a prescription, the formation of light hairlike growth on leaves antimicrobial plastic uroctal 400mg on line, and leaf greening. Other causes of chicon deterioration are continued growth of the stem, resulting in leaf spreading and opening; leaf greening, loss of turgor, and wilting that results in a loss of weight, grade, and quality; and the appearance of bruises at the base or on the leaves that become more apparent at retail. Chicons showing any signs of cuts, drying, burses, or torn tissue should be excluded from sale. Postharvest Pathology the most common decays are Erwinia carotovora, Botrytis cinerea, and other pathogens such as Phytophthora cryptogea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Phoma exigua, and several Pseudomonas spp. Infection of the chicons in the forcing facilities is most often due to the disease organism being introduced on the roots. Suitability as Fresh-Cut Product Potential is low, but loose leaves are occasionally marketed in some prepackaged salad mixes. The marketing of detached leaves is occasionally done to recover some value from fresh market product that is damaged or otherwise would be wasted. The wong bok or napa types are about 20 to 25 cm (8 to 10 in) in length, 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) in diameter, and weigh 1. They are shipped in wax-coated corrugated cardboard cartons and wire-bound crates of various sizes. Two head shapes predominate: the wong bok or napa types (which are short and broad) and the michihli types (which are long and tapered) (Wang and Cerkauskas 1999). Chinese cabbage is grown in small acreages in most major temperate vegetablegrowing regions and is available year round in most markets. Precooling Conditions Damaged leaves should be removed, and the heads packed into shipping containers and quickly cooled (vacuum or hydrovac cooling, forced-air cooling, or hydrocooling) to maximize shelf-life (Kasmire and Cantwell 1992). The storage temperature should be as close as possible to 0 єC (32 єF) without freezing (Kasmire and Cantwell 1992). Water loss is reduced and storage life extended when heads are enclosed in perforated plastic bags (Sozzi et al. Storage life is extended by growing Chinese cabbage during cooler growing seasons and placing the heads upside down during storage (Jin-Cheol Jeong, 1998, personal communication). Quality Characteristics and Criteria Chinese cabbage should have uniform, tightly formed heads with crinkly, yellow-green leaf blades. Horticultural Maturity Indices Determination of maturity in species of Brassica is not simple, and no single index of maturity is reliable (Ludford and Isenberg 1987). Harvesting consists of cutting the whole plant at the soil surface when the heads are firm and the outer leaves are bright green (Munro and Small 1997). In some cultivars, the outer leaves may be tied a few weeks before harvest to promote a tighter, upright head. Ludford and Isenberg (1987) cite reports that Chinese cabbage store better when heads are more compact at harvest. Decay increases and offensive odors are produced during continuous 289 exposure to 7. Retail Outlet Display Considerations Chinese cabbage is displayed as individual heads with the outer leaves removed, frequently with a band around the equator to maintain a compressed head shape. Heads should be kept as cool as possible without freezing and sprinkled with water to minimize moisture loss. Physiological Disorders Chilling Sensitivity Chinese cabbage may be chilling sensitive. A physiological disorder (brown midrib) developed after prolonged storage at 0 °C (32 °F) (Apeland 1985). A 50% loss of product occurred after about 150 degreedays (°F) below the cultivar-specific critical temperature. Brown midrib, a physiological disorder causing significant storage losses, is a symptom of chilling injury (Apeland 1985). Postharvest Pathology Geeson (1983) reported the occurrence of leaf spots caused by Alternaria spp.

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