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These interests offer insight regarding the effects of institutional and systemic injustice and their contemporary implications for urban communities and their residents blood pressure medication irbesartan side effects generic zebeta 5mg on-line. Blessett serves as book and film review editor for Public Integrity and as associate editor for Administrative Theory & Praxis hypertension icd code 9 order zebeta 10 mg on line. She has published in peer-reviewed periodicals, including Administration & Society, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Public Administration Quarterly, Public Integrity and the Journal of Health and Human Services Administration. She also has contributed book chapters to Teaching the Wire: Frameworks, Theories and Strategies for the Classroom, Prison Privatization: the Many Facets of a Controversial Industry, Contemporary Perspectives on Affirmative Action, and Leadership and Change in Public Organization: Beyond Reform. Blessett earned a bachelor of science from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and holds a master in educational leadership from Wayne State University in Detroit. After teaching as a high school health and life skills teacher at Highland Park Community High School, she decided to pursue her doctorate at Old Dominion University. Her dissertation was titled "Dispersion or Re-Segregation: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Public Policies and Their Impact on Urban African American Mobility. Awards Presented Gloria Hobson Nordin Social Equity Award Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Exemplary Practice Award Her research and teaching interests focus on the human processes involved in public service delivery. She currently leads a team of researchers who are investigating the everyday work experience of public servants around the globe. Her research interests include the application of the philosophy of pragmatism to the field of public administration. She found Jane Addams as a recently recovered founder of classical pragmatism and democratic theorist. Following her dissertation research, which looked at the equity of the military recruitment process during the Vietnam era, she has studied civil/military relations. In 2001, Shields became editor-in-chief of Armed Forces & Society, a top 10 military studies journal. Grand Ballroom Christopher Hill Ambassador Christopher Hill is chief advisor to the chancellor for global engagement and professor of the practice in diplomacy at the University of Denver. Prior to this position, he was dean of the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the university, a position he held from September and special envoy to Kosovo (1998-1999). He also served as a special assistant to the president and a senior director on the staff of the National Security Council (1999-2000). While on a fellowship with the American Political Science Association, he served as a staff member for Congressman Stephen Solarz working on Eastern European issues. Prior to serving in academia, Hill was a career diplomat and four-time ambassador, nominated by three presidents, whose most recent post was as ambassador to Iraq (2009-2010). Previously he served as ambassador to Poland (2000-2004), ambassador to the Republic of Macedonia (1996-1999) Ambassador Hill will sign copies of his memoir, Outpost-Life on the Frontlines of American Diplomacy: A Memoir, following his remarks. The signing will take place in the Exhibit Hall (State and East Rooms) starting at 5:30 p. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs at Virginia Commonwealth University. She is an internationally recognized expert on social equity, an elected fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and past president of the American Society for Public Administration. Her books include Why Research Methods Matter (2018, Melvin and Leigh), Race and Social Equity: A Nervous Area of Government (2014, Routledge) and Cultural Competency for Public Administrators (2012, Routledge). Her research has been funded by several organizations, including the Russell Sage Foundation, the W. She previously has served as an elected member to the national policy council of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. In 2016, she was appointed to the Virginia Community College System board by Governor Terence McAuliffe. Before that, she served as the director of the Office of Management and Budget, working with Congress to negotiate a two-year budget deal following the 2013 government shutdown. In both roles she was known as a leader who worked successfully across the aisle and focused on delivering results for the American people. Her additional government experience is extensive and includes roles as deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget, deputy chief of staff to the president, chief of staff to the secretary of the Treasury, and special assistant to the director of the National Economic Council.

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Psychoneurological symptoms can include apathy heart attack zippytune generic 10 mg zebeta otc, self-neglect arrhythmia kamaliya download order zebeta 10 mg free shipping, problems with judgement, irritability, hallucinations, schizophrenia-like psychosis, diminished consciousness, and dementia. Severe toxic or metabolic delirium may have triphasic waves instead of diffuse slowing. Withdrawal from alcohol and other sedatives is characterised by low voltage, fast activity. Structural problems are suggested by periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges. Such side effects usually resolve by one month and usually do not require discontinuation. After a period of lethargy, there may be headache, confusion, and focal neurological signs. Neuroimaging usually shows many ring-enhancing basal ganglia and grey/white matter junction lesions. Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans), a fungus, may cause granulomatous meningitis with a thick basal exudate. It is uncommon for this system to be the site of a primary disorder, but it is often affected by systemic disorders. Functions of reticular activating system Arousal Balance Control of heart and breathing Control of conjugate eye movement Reactions to organic cerebral insult vary between individuals. Unrecognised complications of a primary condition, such as pneumonia2710 arising during detoxification from alcohol 2. Impaired ability to draw a clock-face may be a useful predictor of postoperative delirium. Delirium must be distinguished from depression, dementia (especially Lewy body), and mania. Quite simple things such as constipation, moving shadows, dark corners, poor illumination, dehydration, or urinary retention or infection may precipitate delirium. Cytokines, including interferon, may contribute by increasing blood-brain barrier permeability and influencing neurotransmission. Complications of encephalitis Prolonged anxiety and depression Dementia Personality change Epilepsy Behaviour disorder in children Acute schizophrenia-like psychosis 2715 Since pethidine can cause delirium and seizures morphine is safer (unless there is renal failure). The level of consciousness varies over time, often closely related to variations in pain, sedation, or the discernibility of the environment. There may be reduced awareness of the environment, a diminished capacity to attend to specific issues or to shift attention appropriately from one matter to another, and distractibility. Insomnia by night, sleep reversal with fitful daytime naps, and agitation are frequently encountered. Violent behaviour should be met with enough attendants to restrain the patient safely. The use of antipsychotic drugs should be reassessed if the 2716 2717 Shifts between overactivity and apathy may occur rapidly. The stabilised patient can be switched to twice-daily dosing or night-time only dosing. Chlorpromazine is probably as effective as haloperidol but may adversely affect cognitive status due to its anticholinergic actions. Mianserin, which is sedative, is often used for delirium in Japan 2723, especially for hyperactive cases and where the symptoms are worse at night. Many delirious patients recover, although there is some evidence that new and permanent cognitive damage may follow delirium. Resolution of delirium commonly follows some time after recovery from the underlying somatic condition, i. Mortality is raised commensurate with the severity of the precipitating disorder: 15% die and 4 out of 10 are in institutional care after 6 months. Pharmacological treatment should continue until there is full resolution of delirium. Names are forgotten, correct words are difficult to bring to mind, items are misplaced, concentration is poor, and complex problems present exceptional challenges.

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Subjects were asked if they had reacted in that way in general in the past 6 months and if they had reacted in that way in response to arrhythmia symptoms in children cheap zebeta 5 mg without a prescription any specific life stresses arteria epigastrica superficial safe zebeta 10 mg. Being angry with one self or with others, rumination, use of alcohol or tobacco (see Spring ea, 2003), all discriminated between those who were well and those who were psychiatrically ill at initial interview. They performed a follow-up analysis of 306 women who were well at the first interview. Maladaptive reactions at the first interview predicted later illness inception, even after taking life stress into account. Such reactions seemed sometimes to lead to illness even when there was only minimal later life stress. Attempts to find coping reactions that afford protection against illness inception were unsuccessful. Patients with chronic disease should be assisted to achieve emotional adjustment by remaining as active as possible, to accept and express feelings so as to win back control, to become involved in self-management, and to search for positive outcomes of their illness. The next most common factors were pneumonia, cardiac failure, urinary tract infection, carcinomatosis, and hypokalaemia. Children develop acute organic syndromes more readily than do adults when physically ill. Chronic disorders can cause intellectual disability, disintegrative psychosis or dementia. Denial Commonly reported defence mechanism in clinical medicine 2136 this is also called somatothymia. Among ninety-six unselected patients referred to a specialist clinic for recurrent or persistent abdominal pain (Gomez & Dally, 1977), only 15 were found to have organic disease. It can be direct (feedback given about the disorder on symptoms to be controlled. The patient is taught something which produces a desirable effect on the symptom. There is no strong evidence to suggest that biofeedback is any better than any other form of relaxation or meditation for tension-related disorders. The charisma of the therapist is also a significant element in treatment outcome (bedside manner). Depression commonly follows illnesses such as glandular fever, brucellosis, influenza and infectious hepatitis. Animal studies offer some evidence that the immune system can be taught to respond to simple learning techniques, as when saccharin is first paired with an immunosuppressant and then given alone with the same effect. Fawzy ea (1993) demonstrated improvement in employment of coping strategies and in immune function after a short-term group interaction in people with malignant melanoma. We all experience poor resistance to infection when tired or experiencing prolonged stress. Hostile marital reactions are associated with slower wound healing and muted local cytokine2144 production at blister wound sites than occurs after supportive social interactions. There is evidence to suggest Tlymphocyte suppression after bereavement and in major depression. These changes appear independent of variables like diet, activity, drugs taken, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. In situations of chronic stress, desensitisation of central and peripheral glucocorticoid receptors interferes with normal feedback. One theory of depression suggests that the activity of brain neurotransmitters change as a result of inflammatory changes. In chronic cases, desensitisation of glucocorticoid receptors on neurones and immune cells leads to further damage via high cortisol levels. Antidepressants may affect cytokine release and modulate intracellular signals 2147 to alter pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis. Neoral) may cause a periventricular leucoencephalopathy with sudden change in mental state. The acromegalic may become unrecognisable to friends and scleroderma may mimic excessive use of Botox. Hypomania and depression may be betrayed by excessive and diminished display of engagement respectively. Tremor of the lips may suggest dependence of alcohol and tongue protrusion and smacking of lips may point to tardive dyskinesia. Incongruous affect or blunted emotions may prompt a search for other symptoms of schizophrenia.

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The extended family - as distinct from the smaller nuclear family - and the wake with their opportunities for support and for successful grieving are almost things of the past pulse pressure definition medical cheap 5 mg zebeta mastercard. The modern term (neurosis) embodies an absence of an organic brain disorder just started blood pressure medication buy zebeta 10mg low cost, retention of insight (in touch with external reality), and a personality (whilst often somewhat disordered) that is not grossly abnormal. All neurotic disorders share precipitating, perpetuating and predisposing factors. Jean Fernel of Paris claimed that humans could change into animals by the action of demons (lycanthropy). Smollius, in 1610, used the term hypochondriasis because of the belief that certain mental states were due to subchrondral organ (liver, spleen) dysfunction. Thomas Willis, in 1667, stated that the origin of hysteria was not in the womb, as was the then current theory, but rather in the brain. Jeremy Bentham, philosopher and lawyer of the early nineteenth century, believed that we express those motives and desires that we find to be unacceptable to us in a disguised or symbolic way. It has been suggested that neurasthenia arose in a setting of increased preoccupation with commerce and material success and major changes in the role of women. In a large study of diagnoses in a population of 300,000 people in general practice carried out in the early 1970s in Britain the consultation rate for all neurotic states was 75. The neuroses were found to be very common among the inpatients and outpatients of hospital specialities other than psychiatry. Two-thirds of psychiatric cases seen in general practices were diagnosable as neurotic during the 1960s. Neuroses commonly presented with individual symptoms, the undifferentiated syndrome being a form commonly seen in general practice, psychiatrists more usually seeing specific syndromes, although diagnostic instability over time is very common. The most common symptoms were fatigue (27%), sleep problems (25%), irritability (22%), and worry (20%). It should be noted, however, that, during a given year, 3-7% of children fulfil criteria for overanxious disorder of childhood. Behavioural: Maladaptive activity, exaggerated affect, inability to change, preservation of insight; aware behaviour is irrational and inappropriate but feels unable to stop it; learned phenomenon. However, neurotic (emotionally reactive temperament) behaviour often persists without any obvious reinforcement. The early learning theories of Pavlov and Skinner cannot account fully for human learning. Since then there has been increased attention to cognitions intermediate between stimulus and response. It has been suggested that his phallic phase should be renamed the infantile genital stage, the adult genital stage not commencing until puberty. Panic disorder and agoraphobia have been ascribed to parental, especially maternal, loss or separation in childhood ­ finding oneself in the open, alone, revives memories of the earlier loss. Use of hospital-based samples rather than a wider range of anxiety problems in the community at large may have biased early studies. A later twin study suggested that what is inherited is a non-specific tendency to develop neurosis in general and that the environment may then determine the subtype. A number of authors have decried the abandonment of the concept of endogenous anxiety and some put the blame on excessive homage to Cartesian dogma. According to Kendler,(1996) twin studies suggest the identical or similar genes predispose to generalised anxiety disorder and major depression. Hettema ea (2005) suggest that genes predispose to two broad groups of disorders: panic-generalised-agoraphobic anxiety on the one hand and specific phobias on the other, with social phobia being influenced by both genetic factors. A far stronger indicator of adult psychological problems is socially unacceptable behaviour in the child. If childhood neurosis does persist it is usually as either a neurosis or a depressive state. Murray ea (2009) stress the importance of parent-child bidirectional influences in the development of anxiety disorders in children: various characteristics (temperamental style of behavioural inhibition or biases in information processing) may constitute inherited vulnerabilities; environmental factors such as adverse life events and exposure to negative information or 498 (parental) role models; and over-protection of children by anxious parents as a response to characteristics displayed by the child. The strains of an unsatisfactory family life might militate against women more than men. Men were said to turn to alcohol or criminality, but incidence and prevalence of female alcoholism is increasing. Dissociation disorders: There is splitting off of pathogenic material from conscious awareness; this material nevertheless continues to exert an influence. Janet wrote of state-dependent memory behaviour where events could only be recalled under similar emotional circumstances.

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Journalists hypertension zoloft buy zebeta 5mg on line, always keen to arterial nicking buy 5mg zebeta with visa sacrifice nuance in the name of supposed clarity, are the worst abusers of Cold War history for the purpose of explaining the imperative to promote Internet freedom to their audience. Roger Cohen, a foreign affairs columnist for the International Herald Tribune, writes that while "Tear down this wall! To update 42 the Net Delusion that metaphor, we should talk about the Firewall," as if the similarity between the two cases was nothing but self-evident. Blogs are, indeed, more efficient at spreading banned information than photocopiers. The origins of the highly ambitious cyber-con agenda are thus easy to pin down; anyone who takes all these metaphors seriously, whatever the ideology, would inevitably be led to believe that the Internet is a new battleground for freedom and that, as long as Western policymakers could ensure that the old cyber-walls are destroyed and no new ones are erected in their place, authoritarianism is doomed. All metaphors come with costs, for the only way in which they can help us grasp a complex issue is by downplaying some other, seemingly less important, aspects of that issue. Thus, the theory of the "domino effect," so popular during the Cold War, predicted that once a country goes communist, other countries would soon follow-until the entire set of dominoes (countries) has fallen. While this may have helped people grasp the urgent need to respond to communism, this metaphor overemphasized interdependence between countries while paying little attention to internal causes of instability. It downplayed the possibility that democratic governments can fall on their own, without external influence. One major problem with metaphors, no matter how creative they are, is that once they enter into wider circulation, few people pay attention to other aspects of the problem that were not captured by the original metaphor. The problem stems from using metaphors as a substitute for new thought rather than a spur to creative thought," writes Keith Shimko, a scholar of political psychology at Purdue University. Not surprisingly, metaphors often create an illusion of complete intellectual mastery of an 44 the Net Delusion issue, giving decision makers a false sense of similarity where there is none. The carefree way in which Western policymakers are beginning to throw around metaphors like "virtual walls" or "information curtains" is disturbing. Not only do such metaphors play up only certain aspects of the "Internet freedom" challenge (for example, the difficulty of sending critical messages into the target country), they also downplay other aspects (the fact that the Web can be used by the very government of the target country for the purposes of surveillance or propaganda). Such metaphors also politicize anyone on the receiving end of the information coming from the other side of the "wall" or "curtain"; such recipients are almost automatically presumed to be pro-Western or, at least, to have some serious criticisms of their governments. Having previously expended so much time and effort on trying to break the Iron Curtain, Western policymakers would likely miss more effective methods to break the Information Curtain; their previous experience makes them see everything in terms of curtains that need to be lifted rather than, say, fields that need to be watered. That democracy may still fail to take root even if the virtual walls are crushed is not a scenario that naturally follows from such metaphors, if only because the peaceful history of postcommunist Eastern Europe suggests otherwise. By infusing policymakers with excessive optimism, the Cold War metaphors thus result in a certain illusory sense of finality and irreversibility. Physical walls are cheaper to destroy than to build; their digital equivalents work the other way around. Once such language creeps into policy analysis, it can result in a severe misallocation of resources. Thus, when an editorial in the Washington Post argues that "once there are enough holes in a firewall, it crumbles. To continue using the cyber-wall metaphor is to fall victim to extreme Internet-centrism, unable to see the sociopolitical nature of the problem of Internet control and focus only on its technological side. Ever since a 1997 article in Wired magazine dubbed this system "the Great Firewall of China," most Western observers have relied on such mental imagery to conceptualize both the problem and the potential solutions. If we want to make a start at understanding the internet in China in all its complexity, the first step we need to take is to think beyond the Great Firewall that still has its roots in the Cold War. The similarities between the Internet and technologies used for samizdat-fax machines and photocopiers-are fewer than one might imagine. A piece of samizdat literature copied on a smuggled photocopier had only two uses: to be read and to be passed on. But the Internet is, by definition, a much more complex medium that can serve an infinite number of purposes. Yes, it can be used to pass on antigovernment information, but it can also be used to spy on citizens, satisfy their hunger for entertainment, subject them to subtle propaganda, and even launch cyber-attacks on the Pentagon.

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Joshua Steinfeld Assistant Professor pulse pressure 65 generic zebeta 5mg without a prescription, Old Dominion University Multisector Administration in Stewardship Contracting: the Case of the United States Forest Service 9:30 a blood pressure medication hydralazine 5mg zebeta sale. Contracting as a Mechanism to Build Sustainable Communities and Achieve Accountability Public Finance Senate 9:30 a. Eric Prier Professor, Florida Atlantic University Scrutinizing Voluntary Ex-Ante Transparency Notices in the European Single Market: Evading Accountability? Redding Chair and Professor, Biden School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Delaware Panels (continued) Wonkang Lee Director, Evaluation and Collaboration Division, Seoul Metropolitan Government the Civil Service Exam and Public Administration Education: Comparing Tokyo and Seoul 9:30 a. North Carolina Many State and Local Government Workers Do Not Have Social Security Coverage; Should We Care? Williams Associate Professor, University of Virginia Co-Producing Public Services: Citizen Perceptions, Race and Neighborhood Context on Willingness to Co-Produce 2:15 p. Kevin Mason Student, Carleton University the Brand Factor: Political Branding and the Policy Process Wawrzyniec Rudolf Assistant Professor, University of Lodz Communication of Brand Personality by European Cities: An International Study of Municipal Activities in Social Media Serena Wider Doctoral Student, Copenhagen Business School How Do Images Become? Ammons Maureen Berner Leisha DeHart-Davis Margaret Henderson Michele Hoyman Jeffrey A. Post-Conflict Nations (Global Public Administration Focus) Chapter Leadership Meeting Non-Democratic Governance: Can Collaboration and Participation Help? The Accra Model for Addressing Complex Challenges: Cross-Sector Collaboration for Health Policy Transformation in Urban Slums Have Anti-Corruption Measures Failed? Collaborative Health Governance Enabling Success for All Students: Examining School Finance and Funding with an Equity Lens through All Levels of Government 12:15 p. New York Massachusetts Virginia New Hampshire South Carolina District Ballroom State and East Rooms Chinese Ballroom Independence New Hampshire New Jersey Virginia Maryland Pennsylvania Rhode Island New York Massachusetts Senate South Carolina North Carolina Chinese Ballroom Massachusetts New Hampshire South Carolina Rhode Island New Jersey Independence Pennsylvania North Carolina Maryland Senate New York Grand Ballroom, Mayflower Hotel Fiscal Health: From Sustainability and Stabilization to Pension and Debt 4:45 p. Xuefeng Liang Professor, Harbin Institute of Technology Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in China: Practice and Challenges Ying Zhang Nurse, Lingnan Normal University Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in China: Practice and Challenges 10:45 a. State Park Systems Beth Gazley Professor, Indiana University Does Charitable Support Lead to Better Public Service Performance? State Park Systems Chantelle Lafontant Doctoral Student, Indiana University Does Charitable Support Lead to Better Public Service Performance? Yusun Kim Doctoral Student, Syracuse University the Impact of Frequent Property Reassessment on Assessment Outcomes Skip Krueger Associate Professor, University of North Texas the Political Business Cycle of State Government Revenue Choice HyungGun Park Doctoral Student, University of North Texas the Political Business Cycle of State Government Revenue Choice James Woods Research Scientist, Administrative Office of the U. Valero Assistant Professor, University of Utah Understanding the Leadership Style of Network Managers: Are There Differences Between Public and Nonprofit Leaders? Jihoon Jeong Doctoral Student, University of North Texas Understanding the Leadership Style of Network Managers: Are There Differences Between Public and Nonprofit Leaders? Examining Industrial Development Agencies in New York Thomas Greitens Professor, Central Michigan University American Administrative Capacity: Decline, Decay and Resilience 3:15 p. Jianzhi Zhao Assistant Professor, Fudan University Do Nonprofit Organizations Diversify Their Revenue Sources over Time? Hakyeon Lee Doctoral Student, University of Kentucky Does Quality of Financial Management Increase the Quality of Municipal Bond Credit Ratings? Government Accountability Office Achieving More Efficient and Effective Results by Improving Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Government Adam Miles Senior Analyst, U. Executive Director, American Society for Public Administration Alik Shpekbayev Chairman, Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Civil Service Affairs and Anti-Corruption Welcome Reception 6:30 p. Knott delivers the Elliot Richardson Lecture, and will lead a panel discussion afterward on public administration and democracy. The Price School is dedicated to teaching and research that advance society through better governance, more effective social and health care policy, and sustainable urban development. Presidential Panel-Cybersecurity: "Infrastructure" and So Much More (Infrastructure Focus) Crisis and Emergency Management Decisionmaking Water and Power Infrastructure and Governance Issues 7:00 a. Evidence from China Rui Mu Associate Professor, Dalian University of Technology How Does E-Government Service Affect Public Trust in Government? Evidence from China Xiaoyu Xing Doctoral Student, Renmin University of China What Makes Governance Transformation Efforts Successful? Roach Lecturer, University of the West Indies the Impact of Values on Ethical Behaviors of Public Servants 8:30 a. Department of Health and Human Services Social Equity and Stakeholder Engagement in the Strategic Planning Process Rashida Dorsey Director, Data Development and Information Products Division, U. Assessing the Racial Equity Impact of Legislation to Establish a Virginia Grocery Investment Program and Fund Nakeina Douglas-Glenn Director, Grace E.


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Diversifying agricultural landscapes from large-scale industrial farming ­ such as intensive crop monocultures and industrial-scale feedlots class 4 arrhythmia drugs discount 10 mg zebeta, which can generate negative outcomes including widespread degradation of land blood pressure when to go to er buy 5mg zebeta with amex, water and ecosystems, biodiversity losses, micro-nutrient deficiencies and livelihood stresses for farmers ­ has the potential to reduce land degradation, while incorporating the diversity of values of those engaged with food production. Successful solutions to avoid land degradation include biophysical processes and social issues, locally and broadly across the landscape and the spectrum of players. Technological approaches, including environmental engineering, can often lose control and power over evolutionary functions and do not conserve natural capital (Sarrazin & Lecomte, 2016). Conflict between international and national interests Clarity over acceptable trade-offs and effective strategies to deal with conflicting interests and competing objectives requires management in an all-encompassing manner to identify and prioritize impact avoidance and minimization actions, which determine whether to effectively use or avoid offsetting (Gibbons et al. This applies particularly to situations of conflict wherein an understanding of the plurality of world views and diversity of values can provide opportunities to work towards developing effective solutions (Pascual et al. In this case, formal land-use and management institutions have negatively influenced environmental change, through overstocking, land clearance and wildlife protection in conflict with traditional uses. The use of economics, alone, to assess projects aimed at rehabilitating and restoring degraded lands, may result in unanticipated project outcomes, potentially leading to conflict with local communities. Many local communities place a high value on non-monetary benefits, which are reflected in regionally-relevant social and cultural values (Easterlin et al. These include pre-condition and ongoing assessments in planning, design, monitoring, implementation, management and adaptation actions (see also Chapter 8, Section 8. Restoration project design needs to consider potential impacts from biophysical conditions which may hinder its success ­ for example, through potential damage to a restoration site from hurricanes, winds, water currents, erosion and sediment. Lack of consideration may lead to projects doomed to failure (Zaldivar-Jimenez et al. Successful outcomes may benefit from an assessment of ecological conditions prior to project implementation, assessing the state of land degradation (Weinstein et al. These country commitments require significant human and financial resources, for which accountability is key to understanding if actions reduce and reverse degradation and provide climate change adaptation benefits (Murcia et al. Different restoration scales, ecosystem types require both their own approach and methodologies, and extensive knowledge of the dynamics, multifunctionality and interconnectedness across the landscape (Pinto et al. Similarly, understanding monitoring and design in successful agrobiodiversity projects requires an understanding of multiple socio-ecological options which improve the sustainability of the system, while improving livelihoods and providing benefits for future generations (Jackson et al. The incorporation of effective landscape-scale systematic planning over time may benefit the implementation, management and success of restoration (Fisher, 2010; Grainger et al. An example of an active initiative using a landscape approach is the International Partnership for the Satoyama Initiative, which comprises 172 member organisations working to help maintain and rebuild more than 65 socio- ecological production landscapes and seascapes in at least 30 countries (Denier et al. Social and ecological actions in one location often influence responses some distance away (for further discussion on this see Chapter 2, Section 2. There is a need to mainstream a landscape and systems approach into land degradation and restoration policy and for effective monitoring over time. Biodiversity, food, water, soils, carbon, climate Accurate assessment of ecological and biophysical conditions, including reliable measures of ecosystem health and function, and landscape-scale ecological approaches (Doren et al. In situations where technological solutions are being considered to reduce degradation, the choice of technology can benefit by using interdisciplinary science to understand social, cultural and environmental effects. Any risks associated with the long-term outcomes of the introduction of new technologies will benefit from careful assessment (Similд et al. These cases show how land conservation and restoration measures have helped to deliver improvements in livelihoods, reduce poverty and strengthen long-term sustainability of land use and the extraction of natural resources. The eight success stories are deliberately selected from different regions of the world, in different landscapes and ecosystems impacted by different degradation processes. The wetland went through a phase of reduced connectivity to the sea (1950-2000) owing to increasing sediment loads from upstream degrading catchments. As the lagoon evolved towards a freshwater environment, its fisheries rapidly declined (from an annual landing of 8600 metric tonnes in 1985/86 to 1702 metric tonnes in 1998/99), invasive freshwater aquatic plants choked the waterspread and the lagoon shrank in size. The introduction of shrimp culture in a predominantly capture fisheries setting led to the gradual breakdown of community management systems, loss of traditional fishing grounds and conflicts. The Authority was constituted as a multi-stakeholder institution, under the chairmanship of Chief Minister of the state. The intervention was complemented by basin-wide measures for treating degraded catchments, improving the well-being of fishers, communication and outreach on needs of integrated management and systematic ecosystem monitoring. After initial trophic bursts, the annual fish landing stabilised at nearly 13,000 metric tonnes per year. Annual censuses of Irrawaddy dolphins within Chilika reported an increase from 89 to 158 individuals between 2003 and 2015, an increase in habitat use, as well as improved breeding, dispersal and decline in mortality rates.


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Unlike the dysphasic arrhythmia natural cures order zebeta 10 mg with amex, the schizophrenic has no idea that he is difficult to arrhythmia blog generic 5 mg zebeta mastercard understand. Less words than normal are employed, words, phrases and even syllables are repeated. An excess of thought disorder has been found in relatives of schizophrenics and interpreted as being due to shared genes rather than rearing. Others have found profound deficits of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in early- but not late-onset schizophrenia, while others found evidence for defective prepulse inhibition, probably genetically transmitted, in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality disorder (Hazlett ea, 2003) and the relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The authors felt that their findings supported continuity between early and later-onset cases. Onset can be acute with disturbed behaviour, or insidious with gradual development of odd ideas and conduct. Course is variable and specifiable (by 5-character categories) as continuous, episodic with progressive/stable defect, episodic remittent, incomplete/complete remission, other, and observation less than a year. Symptoms must be present for at least one month (except for simple schizophrenia where at least one year is required). The one-month criterion only applies to certain symptoms: thought echo, delusions of control, commenting hallucinatory voices, culturally inappropriate and completely impossible persistent delusions, persistent hallucinations in any modality, breaks/interpolations in train of thought, catatonic behaviour, and negative symptoms such as blunt affect or self-absorption. It does not include a retrospective recognition of a prodrome: loss of interest, social withdrawal, poor hygiene, anxiety, mild depression, preoccupation, etc. Avoid a diagnosis of schizophrenia in the presence of overt brain disease or during drug intoxication/withdrawal. Similar conditions developing in the presence of epilepsy or other brain disease are coded under F06. The disturbance has lasted at least 6 months, including at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms: 2 or more delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms. The subtypes are: paranoid 1128 (preoccupation with 1 or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations), disorganised 1129 (disorganised speech and behaviour, flat or inappropriate affect), catatonic (motor immobility, excess motor activity, extreme negativism, peculiarities of voluntary movement, echolalia, echopraxia), undifferentiated (not meeting criteria for foregoing subtypes ­ commonest type in clinical practice), and residual (no prominent symptoms or signs, but has attenuated features. A mood episode plus active phase schizophrenic symptoms occur together and are preceded or followed by at least 2 weeks of delusions or hallucinations without prominent mood symptoms. At least 1 month of non-bizarre delusions without other active phase schizophrenic symptoms. Seven subtypes, depending on the prominent delusional theme: erotomanic, grandiose (megalomania, delusions of personal greatness), jealous (infidelity of sexual partner), persecutory (persecution of self or of others emotionally close to self), somatic (false belief one has physical defect or general medical condition; monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis: parasitophobia, insects in skin, dysmorphophobia or body dysmorphic disorder, body odours 1130, and non-functioning body parts), mixtures of foregoing, and unspecified because delusions do not fit into any specified category. Males with schizophrenia appear to be more prone to suffer from a defect state than do schizophrenic women, although this is not an absolute. Disorganised is synonymous with hebephrenic: early onset, poor social/occupational functioning, more severe illness, and poorer longterm prognosis than the paranoid subtype. The patient may be deluded and hallucinated but these phenomena are not as prominent as in the paranoid subtype. However, Clouston, Pick and Sommer and others described a similar state before him). Elvevеg ea (2003) found that schizophrenics are relatively inaccurate at estimating brief time periods (< 1 s). Thought disorder might be due to dysfunction of the cortico-subcortical loops that project into the prefrontal cortex. Executive processes include a broad range of operations involved in initiating and maintaining controlled information processing and co-ordinated mental activity. Included are goal or context representation and maintenance, attention allocation and stimulus-response mapping, and performance monitoring. Besides disturbances in these areas, functional imaging studies in schizophrenia have reported disturbances in tempero-limbic regions, including the hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, striatum and cerebellum. In a meta-analysis, Bora ea (2009) found no categorical differences in terms of cognitive functioning between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective psychosis, except that a subgroup of schizophrenia sufferers with particularly severe negative symptoms may be more cognitively impaired than those in the other groups. Gross cognitive impairment in schizophrenia was found by Buhrich ea (1988) to be related to the disease and not premorbid intellectual impairment or past physical treatment. Hyde ea (1994) found that intellectual function did not decline markedly during the course of schizophrenia, suggesting to the authors that schizophrenia was more likely to be a static encephalopathy than a dementing disorder. Walder ea (2006) found that language was more impaired in males than in females with schizophrenia, but that phonology was, relative to controls, more affected in the female patients. Verbal memory (see Leeson ea, 2009) is defective from the beginning of a schizophrenic illness, and the extent of this deficiency may be greater the earlier the age at onset of the illness. In fact, schizophrenics may even confabulate 1135 with answers that 1132 Classically out by about five years in their determination of how long they are in hospital.

Criswick Schepens syndrome

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Should manic stupor - the smiling but motionless patient - be included under this heading or should it be seen as mania complicated by stupor? It may be more common in females heart attack in spanish buy cheap zebeta 10mg on line, carry an increased suicide risk blood pressure chart on age purchase 5 mg zebeta with amex, have a relatively poor outlook, and be comparatively lithium-resistant. Reactive depression infers the presence of an intrapsychic or environmental precipitant. Neurotic depression was said to typically afflict the young adult who is under stress. There is no consistent diurnal (over 24 hours) rhythm, or the mood may get worse towards evening. The patient projects the responsibility for their problems onto other people or things. A family history was usual and the premorbid personality is often socially well adjusted. It was held that life events leading up to the breakdown, such as moving house or redundancy, were reported as having been excessive over a period of months. Common symptoms included hypochondriasis, guilt1338 feelings, and even delusions of worthlessness. Morris ea, 2007) Involutional melancholia referred to an older patient with neurotic and endogenous depressive features. The family history of such patients shows an increased frequency of affective disorder, not often involutional. Comedians who are depressed may become adept at using irony: self-deprecation as a symptom of depression may be missed under such circumstances. Candidates include rating scales with cut-off scores (open to interrater variation), hospitalisation (resource and policy driven), suicidal thinking (role of alcohol, personality, exit events, etc ­ and may occur in mild depression), chronicity (not synonymous with severity), melancholic subtype (ditto), resistance to treatment (ditto), and interference with function (many other factors interact with depression severity to cause dysfunction. The underbonded depressive experienced some degree of rejection by parents during formative years while the overbonded subject was over protected by parents and did not become emotionally independent of them. He subdivided underbonded depression into stunted self-esteem1341, sensitised self-esteem1342, and mixed forms of the above. In the overbonded patient at least one parent has been overprotective, the second parent may be absent, submissive, or also over protective, and the patient often gets depressed for the first time when he leaves home. They were all bipolar disorders, of good prognosis, led to no chronic defect state, and yet were difficult to distinguish from schizophrenia. F31 Bipolar affective disorder (at least 2 affective episodes of which 1 must be manic, hypomanic or mixed) asks if the current episode is hypomania, mania (with/without psychotic symptoms), depression (mild/moderate/severe, with/without somatic or psychotic symptoms), mixed (hypomanic/manic/depressive symptoms experienced together or rapidly alternating), other or unspecified. F32 Depressive episode may be mild/moderate/severe (the first 2 with/without somatic symptoms, the last with/without psychotic symptoms), other (included atypical depression) or unspecified. F33 Recurrent depressive disorder ­ the current episode may be mild/moderate/severe (the first 2 with/without somatic symptoms, the last with/without psychotic symptoms), other or unspecified, or the patient may be in remission. F34 Persistent mood (affective) disorder may be classified as cyclothymia,* dysthymia,** other or unspecified. F38 Other mood (affective) disorders may be classified as a single episode (state if mixed) or recurrent (state if brief depressive), or other. According to Michels and Marzuk (1993), `The boundaries between dysthymia, chronic unremitting major depression, and depressive personality traits remain controversial. The latter is chronic and lifelong, whereas the former is episodic, can occur at any time, and usually has a precipitating stressor. Preoccupied with not offending others, afraid of incurring criticism, made the object of parental anger or criticism in early childhood, one parent may be absent or passive. A number of experts believe that the cycloid psychoses were a variant of bipolar disorder with an unusually sudden onset. Atypical features: mood reactivity (cheered by good news) plus 2 or more of ­ significant weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis (heavy, leaden feelings in arms/legs), or a long-standing pattern of rejection sensitivity (not only when ill) that causes significant social/occupational impairment. Rapid-cycling: at least 4 episodes of a mood disturbance in the past 12 months meeting criteria for major depressive, manic, mixed, or hypomanic episode. In cases of relatively mild severity, resentment of others may be more prominent than guilt. They can be as short as days in duration, or they can last for so long as to be difficult to distinguish from personality disorder. In a 15-year prospective study of consenting offspring of bipolar parents Duffy ea (2009) found that major mood episodes began in adolescence and not before this and nearly all index episodes were depressive, as were the first few recurrences.

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The active population of the age group 45-54 did not change much hypertension with bradycardia discount zebeta 10mg fast delivery, year-on-year hypertension over 65 buy zebeta 5mg low price, only by 26,000. The age group 35-44 increased by 81 000 inhabitants, as well as the age group 55 and more by 165 000, which showed an increase. The reason is that a large percentage still study and devote themselves to education and training, so it does not appear in the active population. If we look at the total economically active population in terms of age structure and sex in 2019, we find that the active population of men is higher, i. The second noticeable difference is the 45-54 age group, which has the opposite character and the difference is 3. Figure following on the next page 477 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 Figure 4: Prediction of the Slovak population development till 2020 Source: Employee motivation In terms of employee motivation, it is necessary to consider the age structure of the population. It is age that predetermines motivating elements suitable for individual groups of the active population of the Slovak Republic. Business managers must be perfectly informed with relevant data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of employees. The motivation level is focused on the orientation on personnel in terms of improving their activities in the direction required for the company. Creation of a staff motivation evaluation scheme, balanced in terms of given accuracy, objectivity, relevance, simplicity, as well as convenience and clarity. It is ultimately a complex multidimensional process, as they characterize it Aquilano, Chase & Jacobs (2004) [1]. Table 4: A taxonomy of human motivation Regulatory styles Associated process Amotivation Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic Introjection motivation Saliance of Ego extrinsic involvement. Perceived locus of causality Impersona Internal Internal Source: Ryan & Deci [9] 478 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 Table no. The more the employee moves in the table to the right, the more internalization is typical of him. The type of external regulation is the least autonomous type of external motivation where an individual feel under control and wants to take action to receive a reward for it. He wants to avoid guilt or anxiety, or to get to increase his ego or his own pride. Employee identification is a more autonomous type of external nature of motivation because the individual has signed the event as personally significant. Integration is the most autonomous type of external motivation and is also identified by the fact that individual regulations have been fully adapted to themselves [9]. Size of sample is calculated from total number of employees of selfgovernment offices participating in the survey ­ 196. Given the size of the base sample, we used a calculation for the size of the base files, using the following formula: n t2 1- 2 2 2 = p * (1 - p) the principle used is suitable for binomial distribution and in the case of alternative and multinomial distribution it is necessary to modify this method. Where: n the minimum sample size (minimum number of respondents), t1-/2 ­ reliability of estimation, critical value determined from tables, 2 the variance calculated from the standard deviation, the maximum allowable margin of error, N ­ base file size. Then we put the values into the formula: p= 0,5 t1-/2= 1,96 2 => = p * (1 - p) = 0,5 (1 - 0,5) = 0,5 1,962 0,52 196 0,072 479 52nd International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development ­ Porto, 16-17 April 2020 A questionnaire survey was carried out on this sample. After substituting the values into the formula for the large sample population calculation. It can be stated that the requirement to meet the really minimum sample size has been met. Other methods that were used in this written form were the method of induction and deduction. In contrast, in populations with an older age composition, the weight of age groups with a predominance of women is much more pronounced than in the previous case, which also results in the overall masculinity index. At an extremely long projection horizon, it is not feasible to talk about likely developments, as it is not practicable to anticipate any demographic trends over nearly 200 years. In Matlab, the prediction of the development of the economically active population was drawn graphically in Figure no. The birth rate of the population has increased, but not sufficiently against mortality and external migration. The active population, aged 55 and over in the next 10 years, will retire and there is currently not enough active population aged 15-24. Figure 5: Prediction of economically active population Source: Custom processing in Matlab In the practical part of the article, we focused on the evaluation of primary research, which was focused on what are the most suitable forms of motivation of the active population in relation to the age structure.


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