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Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to antibiotic resistance treatment discount keftab 250 mg line clinical laboratory procedures b antibiotics given for sinus infection uk buy keftab 250mg mastercard. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing gastric emptying b. Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to activated charcoal administration b. Know the indications and contraindications for activated charcoal administration c. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in administering activated charcoal d. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing whole-bowel irrigation d. Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to envenomation management and tick removal b. Know the indications and contraindications for envenomation management and tick removal c. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in envenomation management and tick removal d. Recognize the complications associated with envenomation management and tick removal 6. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing cooling procedures d. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing warming procedures d. Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to emergency cardiac ultrasonography b. Know the indications and contraindications for emergency cardiac ultrasonography c. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing emergency cardiac ultrasonography d. Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to ultrasound evaluation of potential ectopic pregnancy b. Know the indications and contraindications for ultrasound evaluation of potential ectopic pregnancy c. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing ultrasound evaluation of potential ectopic pregnancy d. Recognize the complications associated with ultrasound evaluation of potential ectopic pregnancy 4. Know the anatomy and pathophysiology relevant to ultrasonographic foreign body localization and removal b. Know the indications and contraindications for ultrasonographic foreign body localization and removal c. Plan the key steps and know the potential pitfalls in performing ultrasonographic foreign body localization and removal d. Recognize the complications associated with ultrasonographic foreign body localization and removal 13. Understand how the type of variable (eg, continuous, categorical, nominal) affects the choice of statistical test 2. Understand when to use and how to interpret tests comparing continuous variables between two groups (eg, t test, Mann Whitney U) c. Understand when to use and how to interpret regression analysis (eg, linear, logistic) b. Understand when to use and how to interpret survival analysis (eg, Kaplan Meier) 7. Recognize the importance of an independent "gold standard" in evaluating a diagnostic test b. Understand how disease prevalence affects the positive and negative predictive value of a test. Recognize and understand the strengths and limitations of a cohort study, case control study, and randomized controlled clinical trial b.

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Clinicians should remember that the epiphyses and apophyses in young athletes are at risk for overuse and injury antibiotic powder for wounds buy keftab 375mg line. Immobilization is not necessary for healing; instead antimicrobial keyboards and mice order 500 mg keftab with mastercard, the athlete should decrease participation in activities that aggravate the symptoms. A good example of such interaction between closed- and open-chain exercise is walking, in which the cyclic movement requires that the distal point of contact alternate between fixed and free. In addition, the exercise should be performed slowly with control and with external support, as needed for safety. Closed kinetic chain assessment: rehabilitation of improved function in the older patient. Biomechanical differences of open and closed chain exercises with respect to the shoulder. The physiological basis for open and closed kinetic chain rehabilitation for the upper extremity. Biomechanical and physiologic basis of closed kinetic chain exercises in the upper extremities. The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Muscular coactivation: the role of the antagonist musculature in maintaining knee stability. The scientific and clinical rationale for the integrated approach to open and closed kinetic chain rehabilitation. Identify the neurophysiologic principles that are used for maximum force production in plyometrics. Identify specific contraindications to performing upper- and lower-extremity plyometric exercise. Apply techniques appropriate for upper-extremity, trunk, and lower-extremity plyometric exercise programs within the established plan of care. Adaptation of plyometric stretch­shortening principles can be used to enhance the specificity of training for sports that require a maximum amount of muscular force in a minimum amount of time. All movements in competitive athletics involve a repeated series of stretch­shortening cycles. Once the stretch stimulus is completed (full external rotation is achieved), the athlete forcefully accelerates the arm forward into adduction and internal rotation during the acceleration and ball release phases of the throw. Thus, the stretch (cocking phase) precedes the shortening (acceleration, ball release) phases. When an athlete performs a vertical jump, such as to jump to catch a ball or shoot a basketball, he/she exhibits a stretch­shortening cycle. When the squatting movement is performed first, a stretch is generated on the plantarflexors, quadriceps, and gluteal muscles. After the stretch phase is the shortening phase: an explosive push-off that allows the athlete to elevate. Therefore, whether throwing a ball, jumping rope, or swinging a golf club, all the movements involve a stretch­shortening cycle of the muscle. Consequently, specific exercise drills should be developed to prepare athletes for activities specific to their sports. Plyometric exercise provides a translation from traditional strength training to the explosive movements of various sports. In this chapter, specific examples of plyometric exercise drills are presented for the upper and lower extremities. The concept of specificity of training is an important parameter in determining the proper exercise program. The imposed demands during training must mirror those incurred during competition, especially during the advanced phases of the rehabilitation process. In most advanced phases of rehabilitation, the essential element to enhance performance is the capacity of the muscle to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time. Most advanced skills depend on the ability of the muscle to generate force rapidly. To simulate the explosive strength needed in athletics, Verkhoshanski1 advocated the shock method of training when he introduced the concept of plyometrics in Russia. During many athletic activities-such as playing tennis, throwing a ball, or jumping-the athlete performs a plyometric type of muscular contraction. The roots of plyometric training can be traced to eastern Europe, where it was simply known as jump training or shock training.

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Knee Joint the knee joint is the articulation between the proximal tibia and distal femur antibiotic resistance zoology to the rescue buy keftab 250 mg low price. The rounded condyles of the distal femur fit into concave condyles of the proximal tibia antibiotics diarrhea discount keftab 250mg. The knee joint is classified as a hinge joint and permits a wide range of flexion and extension. The knee joint also allows a small amount of medial and lateral rotation, due to the difference in sizes between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur. The medial condyle of the femur is longer (from front to back) than the lateral condyle of the femur. Thus, as we extend our leg toward full extension, the lateral condyles of femur and tibia touch, forming a pivot around which a small amount of rotation occurs. When we bring our knee into full extension, the tibia rotates laterally to cause a perfect fit and "lock" to the knee joint. When flexing our knee from a fully extended position, the tibia must rotate a bit medially to allow flexion to begin. When our weight is on a single leg, and the tibia is thus fixed, the femur rotates laterally to unlock the knee, or the femur rotates medially to "lock" the knee. The large quadriceps group and the large hamstring muscles provide stability to the joint. Cruciate means "cross," which is an appropriate name, as these two ligaments cross over each other as they pass from the tibia to the femur. The cruciate ligaments prevent the femur from sliding off of the tibia anteriorly or posteriorly. The lateral or fibular collateral ligament joins the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula. The medial or tibial collateral ligament joins the medial epicondyle of the femur to the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia. The medial collateral ligament is more susceptible to injury than is the lateral collateral ligament, due to its vulnerability when a force pushes into the lateral side of the knee. This ligament runs from the patella to the tibial tuberosity and is a portion of the quadriceps tendon of insertion. The patellar ligament provides additional stability across the anterior aspect of the knee joint. The articulating surfaces of the sacrum and ilium nestle against each other, so that the joints allow very little movement. Hip Joint the hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint designed to have the stability needed for a weight-bearing joint. A strong ring of fibrocartilage, called the acetabular labrum, connects to the edge of the acetabulum, giving the socket greater depth and helping to hold the head of the femur in the socket. The ischiofemoral ligament, the iliofemoral ligament, and the pubofemoral ligament join each of the hip bones to the femur. In addition, the ligament of the head of the femur joins the head of the femur to the acetabulum. The ischial bursa prevents friction between the gluteus maximus muscle and the ischial tuberosity. Pubofemoral ligament the iliolumbar ligament is part of a complex network of ligaments that stabilize the pelvic girdle and its connection to the lumbar spine. The inguinal ligament is the inferior margin of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle and superior border of the femoral triangle. The iliofemoral ligament, shaped like an inverted "Y", helps maintain optimal contact between the femoral head and acetabulum, limiting medial rotation and extension of the hip. Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament Obturator membrane Pubic symphysis A the posterior sacroiliac ligaments surround and stabilize the sacrum. They are part of a large network of thick, strong ligaments located in the pelvic region. Iliolumbar ligament Sacrospinous ligament Iliofemoral ligament the sacrotuberous ligament stabilizes the sacrum inferiorly and provides muscle attachment points on the posterior pelvis. The ishiofemoral ligament spirals around the posterior coxal joint and assists the iliofemoral ligament in limiting medial rotation of the hip.

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Symptoms are induced by standing or walking and relieved by sitting or flexing forward infection blood purchase 125 mg keftab with mastercard. Forward flexion increases the canal diameter and may lead to antibiotics jock itch purchase keftab 375mg fast delivery the adoption of a simian stance. Physical examination is usually unremarkable, and severe neurologic deficits are rarely seen. A C Idiopathic low back pain A definitive pathoanatomical diagnosis with precise identification of the pain generator cannot be made in 80% of patients. B Assessment A major focus of the evaluation is to identify the few patients with an underlying systemic disease (infection, neoplasm or spondyloarthropathy) or significant neurologic involvement that may require urgent and/or specific intervention. It is essential to take a full history and perform a comprehensive physical examination. Functional scoliosis disappears with spinal flexion, whereas structural scoliosis persists. Point tenderness on percussion over the spine has sensitivity but not specificity for vertebral osteomyelitis. A palpable step-off between adjacent spinous processes indicates spondylolisthesis. Examine the hip for arthritis: this normally causes groin pain, and occasionally referred back pain. This test places tension on the sciatic nerve and stretches the sciatic nerve roots (L4, L5, S1, S2 and S3). This test is very sensitive (95%) but not specific (40%) for clinically significant disc herniation at the L4-5 or L5-S1 level. For lower extremities, neurologic evaluation should include motor testing, determination of knee and ankle deep tendon reflexes, and dermatomal sensory loss tests (Figure 4. Patients will have left-sided sciatica in the distribution of the S1 dermatome and may develop left plantar flexion weakness, diminished light touch and pinprick sensation over the lateral aspect of the foot, and a diminished or absent left ankle jerk. Bone scanning is used primarily to detect bony metastases, occult fractures and infection. Treatment Most patients, regardless of the cause, respond to a general programme that includes analgesia, education, back exercises, aerobic conditioning and weight control. Specific treatment is available only for the small number of patients with major neurologic compression or underlying systemic disease. Imaging studies Diagnostic testing is rarely indicated unless symptoms persist beyond 4 weeks, as 90% of patients will have recovered within this time, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. A major problem with all imaging studies is that many of the anatomical abnormalities (often the result of age-related degenerative changes) are common in asymptomatic people. Flexion exercises strengthen the abdominal muscles and extension exercises the paraspinal muscles. Educational booklets that include back exercises and safe lifting techniques are helpful. There is no evidence that spinal manipulative therapy is superior to standard treatment for back pain. Ultrasound, shortwave diathermy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and other treatments such as lumbar braces, traction, acupuncture and biofeedback are ineffective. Chiropractic focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and on the effects of these disorders on the nervous system and on general health. Chiropractors may specialize in low back pain problems, or they may combine chiropractic with manipulation of the extremities, physiotherapy, nutrition or exercise to improve the strength of the spine. A multidisciplinary approach focusing on functional restoration through an intensive rehabilitation programme based on cognitive behavioural therapy is often helpful. The results of back surgery are disappointing when the goal is relief of back pain (such as by spinal fusion or artificial discs) rather than relief of radicular symptoms from neurologic compression. Osteopathy is a manual therapy that is primarily focused on the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. He concluded that manipulating bones back into place would restore the interrupted flow of nerve impulses and cure disease. Osteopaths will commonly treat back pain by manipulation, but may also use soft, tissue massage or advise exercise.

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Procedure Preparation of serum/plasma test samples Heat-inactive serum/plasma samples at 560C for 30 minutes bacteria names a-z 250 mg keftab sale. If there are many samples and if there is enough specimen volume for more than one test (at least 200µl) antibiotic used for mrsa generic keftab 375 mg overnight delivery, it may be useful to first screen the samples. Divide the 96-Well plate horizontally into two sections: top 4 rows and bottom 4 rows(this permits screening 10 samples plus one positive and one negative in each section). Set pipettor to 25 µl and serially dilute the samples through well 4, discard the last 25 µl. Divide the 96-well plate vertically into two compartments: one section with 8 columns and the other with 4 columns (can test 6 rows of test samples plus one positive and one negative control serum on each plate). End Point of High Titer Specimen On high titred specimen that exceed 8 wells of agglutination. Screening titer results of 1:10 are considered positive for plague since antibody to F1 antigen is specific. For each positive sample, care must be taken to achieve an end-point and ensure the specificity of the reaction. When standard microbiologic methods 59 fail to yield a viable isolate, molecular-based tests may be the only means available to confirm the presence of Y. Reproducibility is influenced by biological and technical variability; therefore, these techniques in the diagnostic laboratory should be selectively applied. Vortex briefly to mix well, then spin in microfuge at 40C(in cold room) at top speed for 3-5minutes. Vortex briefly to mix well, discard top layer (ether) and let the tube sit open in the air for 5 minutes to let ether completely evaporate. For Moderate Time: Place tube at -700C for 30 minutes For longest Time: Place tube at -200C for 2 hours to overnight. Overlay the tops of reactions with 50 µl of mineral oil or with paraffin (to prevent samples evaporation during thermocycler run). Separate physical areas must be dedicated for each work area as well separate pipettors set aside for each step. All equipments should be cleaned with 10 percent bleach solution followed by 70% alcohol wash. The animals are injected subcutaneously with exudate of bubo or with 24 hours growth in broth. Infected animals die within 2 - 5 days and post mortem shows: 62 Local necrosis with oedema Enlargement of regional lymph nodes Hepatosplenomegaly Impression smears prepared from heart blood, bone marrow or affected organs shall show presence of bipolar staining organisms. In case of polycontaminated material, injection to guineapigs must be preferred to inoculation of mice due to extreme susceptibility of the mouse to associated pathogens such as pneumococci, anaerobes etc. The kit is fully field based and does not require any laboratory equipment for any specialized training. Test can be performed with a drop of blood without the need of serum separation and the results are obtained within 90 minutes. Testing carried out in experimental animals revealed that the antigen detection by the test was comparable to isolation and immunofluorescent test and this could be promising rapid and simple test for routine adaption by the plague laboratories. Moderately contaminated cultures can also been tested with this biochemical kit without need of purifying the miocroorganisms. Only trained personnel, in restricted area, should undertake plague diagnostic work. The infectious material must be handled only in biosafety cabinets (vertical laminar airflow under negative pressure and vented to the outside). In accordance with national or institutional policy, chemoprophylaxis or immunoprophylaxis, with regular monitoring, should be provided to laboratory staff. They must wear gowns, gloves (with sleeves of gowns tucked into gloves) and masks (if aerosol generation is expected). In later case sodium hypochlorite should be sprayed into spill, left as such for 10 minutes and followed by a 70% alcohol wash. Other germicidal solutions containing phenol or quaternary ammounium compounds should be used in instances where hypochlorite is considered corrosive. These should be filled only to two-third capacity, sealed with sterility indicator autoclave tape and autoclaved at 1150C for 15 minutes before disposal. Sharps should be disposal of in rigid puncture-proof containers, labeled with biohazard sign and decontaminated with autoclaving. Chemotherapy must be started at the earliest suspicion of plague without waiting for laboratory confirmation as it will not only curtail morbidity and prevent mortality but also contribute towards containment of transmission of infection by rendering the patient noninfectious.

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It functions as a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage and inactivation of C3b and C4b antimicrobial wood sealer keftab 500mg generic. Mutations affect expression of the extracellular domain antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic resistance generic keftab 250mg fast delivery, thereby binding to C3b and cofactor activity [182]. The gene is composed of 41 exons, and mutations may be localized throughout the gene [151]. Mutations affect binding to factor H, thus reducing its regulatory capacity, or enhance binding to factor B resulting in a hyperfunctional C3 convertase and complement deposition on endothelial cells and platelets [151, 152, 184]. Factor B is cleaved in vivo into factors Ba and Bb, the latter binding to C3b to form the C3 convertase. Similar to C3 mutations, mutations in factor B may result in a hyperfunctional C3 convertase [185] or a C3 convertase resistant to decay by factor H [186]. However, not all mutations have been shown to cause protein dysfunction in vitro [27, 186]. Thrombomodulin is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on vascular endothelial cells. In addition, thrombomodulin binds to C3b and factor H and enhances factor I-mediated inactivation of C3b in the presence of factor H. Mutations were shown to enhance complement activation by diminishing these functions [150]. The prevalence of mutations in the clusterin gene is hard to assess, as it is not assayed regularly. Once haemolysis is induced, heme is released and may further activate the complement system in the fluid phase and on cell surfaces particularly in the setting of mutated complement proteins [189]. Thus, haematological recurrences associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia occur only in patients with residual renal function and cease to recur once terminal renal failure occurs. This may indicate that an interaction between components of renal tissue and the complement system could Є 2016 the Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine Journal of Internal Medicine 13 D. Patients may, however, have ongoing complement activation in the vasculature even in the absence of renal tissue [27]. Exposure of the T antigen is used to diagnose this condition with a lectin assay [191]. Thus, cleavage of sialic acid by neuraminidase may reduce the capacity of factor H to protect host cells from complement deposition. Factor H also conferred resistance to invasive pneumococcal infection [194] but did not attenuate vascular leakage in a mouse model of pneumococcal sepsis [195]. Review: Haemolytic uraemic syndrome address the main causes of disease, as shown in Table 1. Supportive care includes renal replacement therapy (preferably peritoneal dialysis, or continuous haemodialysis in the unstable patient), adequate hydration and nutrition, correction of electrolyte disturbances and acidosis, and control of hypertension and seizures [202]. Fluid replacement should consist of insensible losses and urine output in order to avoid excess hydration in the patient with renal failure. In children, haemoglobin levels below 60 g/L may necessitate transfusion, but in adults comorbidities may influence the level at which a blood transfusion should be given. Platelet transfusions should be avoided unless the patient has a platelet count below 10 9 109/L and is at risk due to active bleeding or requires surgery. These observations may, however, be specific for the outbreak strain and require confirmation in other cases. Children do not seem to benefit from plasma therapy [209, 210] whilst uncontrolled case studies reported some benefit in adults [211­213]. These results could not be confirmed during the large outbreak in Germany in 2011 in which many adults were treated with plasma exchange [12, 202, 214]. Moreover, as Shiga toxin does not circulate in free form, it is unclear how plasma exchange could affect the course of disease other than by the removal of toxic microvesicles as well as prothrombotic and proinflammatory factors and replenishment of coagulation and complement factors. An initial report in three children with neurological complications was encouraging [215], but a clear beneficial effect could not be demonstrated during the large German outbreak of E.

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There is substantial variation in the description of cortical atrophy among radiologists virus 100 buy discount keftab 250 mg line. This variability can be reduced through the adoption of standardized rating scales 7daystodie infection proven 125mg keftab. Finally, radiologists interpreting studies in this domain must be familiar with findings that are may be subtle (such as limbic encephalitis) or uncommon (such as prion disease). The role for each reporting within each of these domains is examined in an effort to show how these data elements might assist in diagnosis when imaging is incorporated into a standardized diagnostic pathway. In the discussion that follows, a number of imaging examples are also provided for illustration. Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Recommendation for further brain imaging Completion of the full structured report according to this design should provide a report that is not only relevant to the diagnosis of dementia, but also can be used as the formal study report and mined for data in the application of diagnostic algorithms. Inadequate Prominent artifacts for which automated volumetric analysis is likely to be inaccurate. This metric is used to validate the accuracy of the results derived using automated analysis. The interpreting radiologist should indicate sequences that were not acquired, or that suffer from motion or other artifacts that is sufficient to render them diagnostically inaccurate. Note that sequences with artifacts may still be considered diagnostically sufficient even if not optimal; the assignment of inadequate quality for any sequence be made when image quality is insufficient to complete the elements from the report below (atrophy patterns, overall burden of white matter disease, etc). In brain tissue, atrophy describes a loss of volume within neurons, extracellular space, or glia. Visible loss of brain volume is common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and may be generalized or regionally localized. Although automated analysis may be more sensitive to subtle changes in volume and adjust for age, visual analysis remains important as technical artifacts and underlying brain lesions related to prior trauma, infection, hemorrhage, infarction or surgery might sometimes render these algorithms inaccurate. Furthermore, the human eye is quite accurate in determining whether there is disproportionate atrophy involving a specific brain structure. Whereas global assessment of volume is based on a general assessment of the prominence of the ventricles, gyri and sulci throughout the brain, regional evaluation requires the subjective determination that atrophy disproportionately involves a certain lobe or type of parenchymal tissue. Global volume loss is nonspecific and can be seen in non-neurodegenerative brain disorders with cognitive symptoms, such as dehydration, endogenous or exogenous steroids, and hypernatremia. When a patient exhibits symptoms of a neurodegenerative illness, however, global atrophy may indicate the presence of widespread neurodegeneration. Certain neurodegenerative syndromes may also involve structures in the posterior fossa, such as progressive supranuclear palsy or spinocerebellar ataxia. This checklist is designed to characterize the degree of lobar volume loss beyond the global assessment of parenchymal volume. When there is symmetric atrophy of the entire supratentorial brain, this section of the report should not be used to indicate the presence of specific lobar atrophy. Instead, this section of the report should be used to indicate the presence only of specific lobar atrophy. Regional atrophy reflects selective neuronal cell death and may be a strong indicator of a specific neurodegenerative disorder (see Figure 1 for examples). Importantly, hippocampal atrophy is considered separately in evaluation of the limbic system. A visual assessment of ventricular size should also be suggested in the qualitative assessment of brain volume. Specifically, when the ventricles are enlarged out of proportion to the supratentorial sulci, the reviewer is directed to indicate that ventriculomegaly is present. These four subjective features (see Figure 2) are not diagnostic of this entity, but may support the diagnosis when a patient also suffers from gait abnormalities and/or urinary incontinence. These features are a subset of several imaging findings that have been described as suggestive of this disorder. For practical use, we require that at least 2 of 4 of these features be present before this diagnosis is considered. The subjective evaluation of the limbic system is comprised of two separate assessments, one for hippocampal atrophy and the other for limbic signal abnormality. Left image shows asymmetric T2 hyperintensity involving the medial temporal lobes in a patient with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. Characteristic features that help to distinguish among different causes for white matter disease include the extent and location of signal abnormalities, the presence of mass effect or cavitation within involved areas.

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It can be dried by a drum drier to virus list discount 250 mg keftab overnight delivery form flakes and powders or dried by a spray drier to antibiotics for uti vomiting generic keftab 125 mg on line form beads. Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate is made by the sulfonation of straight-chain alkylbenzenes prepared from petroleum distillates (Buehler et al. Two-phase titration can be used for the determination of total cationic or anionic surfactants in mixtures (Mohammed and Cantwell 1980; Tsubouchi and Mallory 1983). Impurities Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate contains impurities that include neutral oil (unsulfonated materials), arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) (Estrin et al. Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates are produced by the alkylation of benzene, which results in a number of side reactions (Arthur D. Some of the dialkylbenzenes that result from the side reactions could not be separated from the primary product with ease and, following sulfonation, remained in commercial Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates. Other dialkylbenzenes and the diphenylalkanes that form as products of the side reactions boil at temperatures sufficiently above the linear monoalkylbenzene, facilitating their removal. Six samples of commercial Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates were analyzed for dialkyltetralins and dialkylnaphthalenes (Vista Chemical Co. These compounds were detected as impurities in concentrations ranging from 0% to 15% and 0% to 0. Gas chromatography and mass spectral analysis also revealed the presence of dialkylindanes in these Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates samples; however, the concentration of these impurities amounted to only about 1/10 of that of alkyltetralins. Ultraviolet Absorbtion Three commercial samples of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, dissolved in water at concentrations up to 1. Property Physical appearance Value Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate Yellow colored slurry or off-white dry product (powder, flakes, or beads) Pale yellow paste or slurry, spray-dried powder, or as a flake Odor % Active Slurry Dried product Molecular weight Bland 30 - 50% Usually 30% - 60% 40% - 90% ~90% 349 348. A survey of current use concentrations conducted by the Personal Care Products Council (Council) reported a range from 2% to 3% (Council 2008). Non-Cosmetic Sodium Dodecylbenzensulfonate is used as a detergent in hospitals (Tsubouchi and M allory 1983) and as an industrial neutral cleansing agent (Itokawa et al. Large quantities of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonates are used in household detergent and dishwashing products (Hunting 1983). Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate was used in a microemulsion system with butanol and decane to partition cytochrome c between an aqueous phase in equilibrium (Jolivalt et al. Sodium n-Dodecylbenzenesulfonate is used in the removal of heavy metals (Tokuyama and Iwama 2007). The test substance (83% recovered) was excreted mostly in the urine (89% of 35 S recovered) and not the feces (11%). In another experiment, the proximal end of the bile duct was cannulated on rat 1 which then fed into the distal end of the bile duct of rat 2. The 35 S-containing compounds that were excreted in the bile of rat 1 and transferred to rat 2 were completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of rat 2; nearly 2/3 of this activity was excreted in the bile of rat 2. The author concluded that 89 to 90% of an oral dose of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate was readily adsorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (Michael 1968). Four adult rhesus monkeys, 2 males and 2 females, were administered 30 mg/kg 14C-Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in aqueous solution, approximately 25 µCi, by oral intubation to study the excretion of 14C-Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (Cresswell et al. Urine was collected 0-8 and 8-24 h after dosing, and then at 24 h intervals for 4 days; feces were collected at 24 h intervals for 5 days. To determine plasma radioactivity concentrations, blood samples were drawn prior to dosing, at various times within the initial 24 h period following dosing, and then at 24 h intervals until radioactivity concentrations were below the limit of detection. Over 5 days, the total amount excreted in the urine by male and female monkeys was 68. The animals were administered single oral doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg 14C-Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, both ~ 26 µCi, at intervals of 2 to 3 weeks. Approximately 2 to 3 weeks after the last single dose, each animal received 7 consecutive daily oral doses of 14C-Linear C-Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate was used to determine the distribution and elimination of Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate in rats; the location of the 14C in the molecule was not stated (Lay et al. Twelve male W istar rats were fed 14C-Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate in the diet, ad libitum, at a concentration of 1. On day 35, 6 of the rats were killed and a determination of radioactive residues was made. The fecal and urinary 14 C-Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate-derived activity consisted of highly polar metabolites. Approximately 90% of the 14C in the feces and 65% in the urine was recovered, and unchanged Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate was not detected. The relatively high concentrations in the colon and small intestine suggested the excretion of 14C in the bile.

References:

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